10th Century

900                 CE, 287 A.H Arab Merchants come to live in Ghana. And as Arabs gain more influence, they teach the people of Ghana about Islam. Many government officials and merchants convert to Islam. Some merchants spend large funds to builds mosques. Among the first converts were the Mandinke people from the Southern Sahara. They served as middlemen between Arab traders and Wangara. The Mandinke build small trading companies that made contact with many different people. They spread Islam throughout West Africa. Many people converted to Islam because they were impressed by its teachings and the conduct of the early Muslims. Islam stressed brotherhood of all believers. This also encouraged peaceful trade between people of different nations

902      Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr.

902      The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the last Christian stronghold, the city of Taorminia, is captured. Muslim rule of Sicily would last for 264 years.

903            Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir.The Karamatians plunder Damascus.

904            Muslim armies capture Solonika from the Byzantines.

905      Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt.

905                   -91 The Arab dynasty of the Hamdanids (929-979) rules the Jazira (upper Mesopotamia) independently from their capital, Mosul, and northem Syria (capital Aleppo)

905      The Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt is destroyed by an Abbasid army sent to reestablish control over the region of Egypt and Syria.

907      Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir,

907            Abu Abdullah, Fatimid leader, moves to North Africa.

908              Ibrahim

908      End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids.

908            – 932 Al-Muqtadir Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

909            the Ibadi imamate of Tahart (Algeria) dissolves

909      Sicily came under the control of the Fatimids’ rule of North Africa and Egypt until 1071. From 878 until 909, their rule of Sicily was uncertain.

909                  Sa’id ibn Husayn, with the help of his chief missionary-commander Abdullah ibn Husayn Al-Shi’i overthrows the Aghlabids and founds the Fatimid Shi’ite rule in North Africa Kairouan, in present-day Tunisia; he changes his title to Imam Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah. an Isma’ili scholar from Syria who claimed descent from Fatima and ‘Ali. The Fatimids spread both east (to Egypt) and west across North Africa (to Fez, Tangier, and Ceuta).The Aghlabid Ziyadat Allah is thus expelled from the region, and with him the final remnants of Sunni Islam in North Africa.

909                 Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy Sicily, Sardinia.

910                 Al Razi conducts research into infectious diseases including small pox, rabies and the plague.

910                 Death of the mystic Junayd.

910                 911 Death of  Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn

911                 – Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off passage between the two countries.

912                 – Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III.

912                 Reign of Abdul Rahman III in Spain (912-961). Cordoba becomes the premier city of Europe. Golden age of Spain. Science and civilization thrive.

913                 Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.

913                 -42 The Samanid Nasr II makes his realm a center of Arabic and Persian culture. The Samanid territory reaches its

914                 Nasr al Saeed of the Samanids in Khorasan favors the Fatimids over the Abbasids.

915                 The Kharijites establish themselves in southern Morocco.The Fatimids raid Egypt.

916                 – A combined force of Greek and German emperors and Italian city-states defeat Muslim invaders at Garigliano, putting Muslim raids in Italy to an end.

920                  al-Uqlidisi

920                 Mathematician and astronomer al-Battani writes BOOK OF TABLES, a major work on astronomy which includes developments in trigonometry. He is the first to calculate the length of the solar year to the second. His work in astronomy set the foundation for future astronomical observation.

920                  Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony, and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse.

921                 The Fatimid preacher Ubayd Allah leads the KitamaKutama Berbers creates a kingdom in Tunisia with capital in Mahdiya

922                 Crucifixion of the mystic al-Hallaj in Baghdad.

922                 Mansur al Hallaj, Persian mystic, is executed for his esoteric views.Beginning of the Tahirid dynasty in Iraq.

923                 Death of Abu Tabari, noted commentator on the Qur’an.

923                 Death of the Koran commentator, lawyer and historian al-Tabari (born 838). The many volumes of his Annals (AkhbÉr ar-rusñl wa’l-mulñk) incorporate the most important sources for early Islamic history, and become in turn the source for later histories.

925                 Death of the physician and philosopher Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (Rhazes)

928                 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.

928                 – 969Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).

928                 Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.

929                 Death of the astronomer al-Battani (Albatenius)

929                 In response to Fatimid claims to the Caliphate, Abdul Rahman III of Spain assumes the title of Caliph and protector of Sunni Muslims in North Africa.

929                 The rise of the Hamdanids, they establish independent rule of Syria and Iraq. Great patrons of scholars, poets, philosophers, and historians. Emir of al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman III, proclaims himself Khalifa, breaking ties with Syrian and Egyptian Caliphates.

929                  Abd al-Rahman III transforms the Emirate of Cordova into and independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.

929                 -69 During his long emirate of the Hamdanid al-Hasan Nasir al-Dawla extends his rule from Mosul in upper Mesopotamia (diyÉr rabi’) westward into Syria. 930 The Bahrayn Carmathians attack Mecca, massacring pilgrims and carrying off the Black Stone of the Ka’ba. Conquest of Oman.

929                 Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba. In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph.

929                 The Hamdanids, who were Shi’is, come to power in Aleppo and Mosul, though they date back to 905                   They will rule there until 1004, and are generous patrons of scholars, historians, poets and philosophers.

930                 the philosopher Farabi reconciles the philosopher’s logic and religion as a symbolic system to express truth to non­philosophers

931                 Abdur Rahman III occupies Ceuta.

931                 – Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur.

932                 Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir. 932-34

932                 The Buyids establish their rule in southern Iraq.Al Qahir becomes the Caliph in Baghdad.

932                   Saltuk Buğra Khan of Karahan Turks embraced Islam.

933                 The Ishkedids displace the Tulunids in Egypt and rule until 969. 931Abdur Rahman III occupies Ceuta.The Fatimids capture Algeria.

933                 The Ishkedids displace the Tulunids in Egypt and rule until 969.

934                 – 940 Ar-RadiAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

934                 Al Radi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.Al Qaim becomes the Fatimid Caliph.

934                 Death of  Abū Zayd al-Balkhī

934                 Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qahir; accession of ar-Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah; accession of al QaimImad al-Dawla establishes Buwayhid power in Fars.

934                 -40 Caliphate of al-Radi, during whose reign the power of the weakened caliph is usurped by the commander-in-chief of the army(amir al-umarÉ) (936). The Shi’ite military clan of the Buyids (932-1062) from Daylam on the Caspian Sea conquers most of westem Iran-Fars, Isfahan, Khuzistan, Jibal and Kerman.

934                 Al Radi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.Al Qaim becomes the Fatimid Caliph.

934                 Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph AI Qahir; accession of Ar Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.

935                 -69 Muhammad ibn Tughj (935 -46), al-Radi’s governor (Ikhshid) in gypt, defies the Abbasid commander-in-chief and establishes independent rule in Egypt and Syria. His family holds power there until overthrown by the Fatimids.

935                 CE Until 969 CE, the rule of Egypt is under the Ikhidid dynasty.

935                 Rukn al-Dawla conquers Ray and establishes the Buwayhid government there. Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij; accession of Vushmgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdallah ibn Hamdan, accession of Nasir al-Dawla.

935                 Muhammad ibn Tugh founds the Ikshid dynasty, which rules over Hijaz (northwestern Saudi Arabia), Egypt and Syria.

935                 Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan accession of Nasir ud Daula.

935                 Death of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari, a philosopher and theologian noted for having integrated the rationalist methodology of the speculative theologians into the framework of orthodox Islam.

936                 Muhammad ibn Ra’iq in the post of commander-in-chief at Baghdad, unites this office with financial and administrative control of the empire.

936                 The Althing, the oldest body of representative government in Europe, is established in Iceland by the Vikings.

936                 (?) Death of the traditionist theologian al Ash’ari who, together with Maturidi, formulated some of the key arguments against the Mu’tazilites.

936                 By coup, Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir al-Umara under Abbasid Caliph ar-Radi.

936                 The palace city of Medinat az-Zahra is founded at Cordoba by Abd al-Rahman III.


937                 The Church of the Resurrection (aka Church of Holy Sepulcher) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked.

937                 The Ikhshid, a particularly harsh Muslim ruler, writes to Emperor Romanus, boasting of his control over the holy places.

938                 By another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.

939                 ‘Abd al-Rahman III is defeated by the Christian Ramiro of Leon at Simancas.

939                 Abdul Rahman III of Spain captures Fraxinetum, Valais, Geneva, Toulon and Great St. Bernard.

939                 Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces.

940                 – 944 Al-MuttaqiAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

940                 Al-Quhi

940                 Death of  Abū Bishr Mattā

940                 Extensive postal services are established by the Abbasids.Al Muttaqi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.

940                 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”

940                 Rudaki, the first major poet in New Persian is active at the court of the Samanid Nasr II in Bukhara.

940                  Al-Khujandi

940                 Hugh, count of Provence, gives his protection to Moors in St. Tropez if they agree to keep the Alpine passes closed to his rival, Berenger.

940                   al-Quhi

940                 Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.

940                   Abu’l-Wafa

940                 -44 Caliphate of al-Muttaqi. from 941 Plague epidemic in Iraq.

940                 Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.

940                 Extensive postal services are established by the Abbasids.Al Muttaqi becomes the Abbasid Caliph.

940                 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”

941                 Death of al-Maturidi, who, after his teacher al-Ash’ari, was the second great theologian of the sunna, and who defended orthodox teaching by means of scholastic (kalam) methods.

941                 Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.

942                 Death of    Sa’ādia Gaon

942                 The Hamdanid al-Hasan of Mosul, becomes the protector of the caliph after the murder of Ibn Ra’iq, the last Arab commander-in-chief, and receives the title Nasir al-Dawla. In Iran the Samanid dynasty’s authority begins to wane as conflicts within the court and popular uprisings in Khurasan sap its strength.

942                 the Samanids expands in Central Asia (Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat) and move their capital to Bukhara, which becomes one of the cultural centers of the Muslim world

942                  Ibn Raiq recaptures power in Baghdad.

943                 – Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to’ Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires’ to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh.

944                 – 946 Al-MustakfiAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

944                 -47 Berber tribes ofNorth Africa revolt against Fatimid rule.

944                 Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.

944                 -46 Caliphate of al-Mustakfi, who yields military and administrative power within the caliphal territory to the Buyids, who retain it for a century (945 – 1055)..

945                 CE A Shiite band invades Baghdad, and the Abbasid Empire becomes a powerless symbol of unity and legitimate government to the Muslim community. Until the sixteenth century, rule of Islamic civilization is decentralized and different sects are ruled by different rulers.

945                 Shiites invade Baghdad; The Abbasid Empire becomes a powerless symbol. Until the sixteenth century, rule of Islamic civilization is decentralized and different sects are ruled by various caliphs.

945                 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.

945 the Buyids (shiite) descend from the Caspian Sea, and invade Persia 949 Adud Dawla of the Buyid dynasty adopts the Persian imperial title shah

945                   Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi.

945                 Al-Mustakfi appoints the Buyid Mu’izz al-Dawla commander-in-chief in Baghdad.

945                 The Buyids temporarily capture Baghdad.

945                   al-Sijzi

945                 -1003 Sayf al-Dawla (945-67) of the Hamdanid dynasty seizes Aleppo and Hims from the Ikhshidids of Egypt and fights against the Byzantines. He receives the Arab poet al-Mutanabbi at his court, and offers his patronage to the historian and litterateur Abu ‘l-Faraj al-Isbahani and the philosopher al-Farabi as well.

945                 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.

946                 Al Mutee’ becomes the Abbasid Caliph. Al Mansur becoms the Fatimid Caliph.

946                 Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Qaim. Accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad bin Tughj, accession of Abul Qasim UngurSayf al-Dawla establishes himself at Aleppo

946                 -74 Caliphate of al-Muti’.

946                 Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid rulerProphet Muhammad (pbuh)b Tughj, accession of Abul’

947                  Rebellion of Ibrahim ibn Ahmad in Bukhara against Nuh I (Samanids)

949                 Death of the Buwayhid shah of Fars‘Imad al-Dawla. Accession of ‘Adud al-Dawla.

949                 -83 ‘Adud al-Dawla, the most important ruler of the Buyid dynasty in Iran and, from 977, Iraq, adopts the Iranian imperial title shahanshah and pursues a vigorous expansionist policy in both the east and west.

950                 Conversion to Islam of Turkish tribes east of the Jaxartes (Qarluqs and Qarakhanids).

950                 Pahlavi, the language of Persia, is reformed according to the Arabic script

950                 Yunus

950                 CE Al-Farabi, the greatest of the faylasufs (Arabic for philosopher), lives most of his life in Baghdad and teaches that the enlightened individual could perfect his life through philosophy without being corrupted by the common beliefs of the public.  A noted scientist, philosopher, jurist, author of treatises on ethics, music and logic, Sufi Shaykh.

951                 – The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba..

951                 The Ikhwan as Safa in Iraq compile an Encyclopedia of Knowledge.

953                 Al Muiz becomes the Fatimid Caliph in North Africa.

953                 – Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Cordova to ask Caliph Abd al-Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.

953                  Al-Karaji

954                 Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.

955                 Sharp naval engagements between the navies of Al Muiz and Abdul Rahman III off the coast of Spain.

956                 Death of al-Mas’udi, world traveller and historian, author of an encyclopaedia on history, geography and sciences.

957                 Al Masudi, the historian, passes away

960                 Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam

961                 – Death of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova became one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power. He is succeeded by Abdallah, a caliph who would kill many of his rivals (even family members) and has captured Christians decapitated if they refuse to convert to Islam.

961                 The Oghuz family of Turks in Central Asia accepts Islam.

961                 – Under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, the Byzantines recapture Crete from Muslim rebels who had earlier fled Cordova.

961                  Turkish mameluk Alptigin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids.

961                 -63 Alptigin, Turkish general of the Samanids, establishes autonomy in Ghazna, but rules the eastern portion of the Samanid state (Sistan, Afghanistan) in their name until 999.

961                 Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf. Alptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali.

961                 The Byzantine Empire regains control of Crete from the Arabs.

962                 CE Afghanistan is stabilized by the rule of the Ghaznavid dynasty which lasts until 1186 CE.

962                 The Islamic era begins with the Ghaznavid Dynasty, founded by Turks and giving rise to Afghanistan’s emerging role politically and culturally in Islamic civilization.

962                 The Seljuk, Alaptagin, establishes a kingdom in Ghazna, Afghanistan.

964                 ? Death of  Umm ‘Alī of Balkh

965                 Grenoble is recaptured from the Muslims.

965                 – Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas reconquers Cyprus from the Muslims.

965                 – c.1039 Ibn al- Haytham (Alhazen)Basra-born researcher in astronomy, mathematics and optics who helped to develop the camera obscura. He refuted Greek models of vision, arguing instead that vision is the result of images being formed, and provided better descriptions of the eye.

965                 Rebellions of youth gangs (ahdÉth ) in Antioch and Aleppo.

965                           Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik Kafur.

965                 Death of al-Mutanabbi, regarded by many as the greatest Arab poet in history. He is best known for panegyric poems in ornate language.

966                 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem

967                 Death of Abu ‘l-Faraj al-Isbahani historian and man of letters. His ‘Book of Songs'(KitÉb al-aghÉni) is a major source for ancient and classical Arabic poetry.
967                           Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.

968                 –   The Fatimids, a “Sevener” Shi’ite Dynasty, founds Cairo and rules Egypt (-1171

968                 Byzantium reconquers Sicily and Northern Syria.

968                 The Umayyads establish a university in Cordoba.

968                 -1171 CE – The Fatimids, a “Sevener” Shi’ite Dynasty, founds Cairo and rules Egypt

968                 Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris.

969                 – 1027 The height of Cordoba. Unrivalled achievements and significant advances in medicine, surgery, chemistry, mathematics, philosophy, language, and translation take place in what is believed to be the largest and most sophisticated cultural city in the world.

969                 The Fatimids conquer Egypt, the taking of Fustat and the founding of Cairo (al-qÉhira).TheFatimid dynasty becomes the major Mediterranean power.

969                  Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquers Antioch (modern Antakya, capital of the province Hatay) from the Arabs.

969                  Byzantines occupy Antioch and force Aleppo to become a protectorate.

969                  The Fatimid dynasty (Shi’ite) takes Egypt from the Ikshidids and assumes the title of caliphate in Egypt until 1171.

969                 Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus (964) and Tarsus (969).

969                 Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, “the victorious city”) is founded.

969                 The al-Azhar mosque-university is established to train Shi’a missionaries. Al-Azhar is still a major institution of higher learning, but it ceased to promote Isma’ili Shi’ism with the fall of the Fatimids.

970                 The Fatimids capture Syria, Makkah and Madina and lay claim to the leadership of the Islamic world. Fatimid rule in Multan (modern Pakistan). Brisk trade between Alexandria, Egypt and Venice, Italy.

970                 Mansur

970                 Seljuks enter conquered Islamic territories from the East.

971                 Death of Abū Ya’qūb al-Sijistānī

972                 CE North Africa is under the control of the Zayri rulers in Tunis. Their control lasts until 1148 CE, much longer than the Aghlabi rulers were able to sustain control.

972                 a fire kills 17 thousand people in Baghdad

972                 The Fatimid move to Egypt and leave Tunisia and northern Algeria to governor Buluggin ibn Ziri of the Zirid dynasty

972                 – The Muslims in the Sisteron district of France surrender to Christian forces and their leader asks to be baptized.

972                 -1152 The Berber dynasty of the Zirids in Ifriqiyya and eastern Algeria (until l049 as vassals of the Fatimids).

972                 Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.

973                 Cairo became the capital of the Fatimid caliphs. The mosque and college of al-Azhar (founded 970, completed 972) becomes the spiritual centre of the Isma’ili Shi’a.

973                 The Fatimids move their capital to the newly­founded city of Cairo (Qahira)

973                 -1048  Life of Al-Biruni, a scientist, mathematician, ethnographer, and overall polyhistor.1000

973                 Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin.

974                 Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph AI Muttih; accession of At Taii.

974                 Death of the Christian Arab theologian and philosopher, Yahya ibn ‘Adi in Baghdad.

974                 Death of the Samanid vizier Bal’ami, the translator of the Annals of al-Tabari into Persian.

974                 Death of Yaḥya ibn ‘Adī

974                 -91 Caliphate of al-Ta’i’. Struggle of the caliph with the Buyid amirs for autonomy in Iraq..

975                 Death of Al Muiz, Fatimid Caliph of Egypt. Al Aziz becomes the Fatimid Caliph.

975                 Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz.

976                 Hisham II al Muayyad becomes caliph of Spain and orders the destruction of books of astronomy and logic because heretic

976                 The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II. In Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II.

977                 Sebaktigin, king of the Ghaznavid kingdom, invades northern India and Central Asia

977                 The Buyid ‘Adud al-Dawla takes over the chief emirate in Baghdad, has himself crowned king by the caliph.

977                 -97 SebÅktigin, the slave general of Alptigin, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India and Khurasan. RasÉ’il ikhwan as-safÉ’ (Letters of the Brethren of Purity) of Basra, a philosophical-scientific encyclopaedia influenced by the Isma’li Shi’ite ideology. Death of Daqiqi, a court poet of the Samanids, predecessor of Ferdowsi

978                 Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids.

979                 Death of Abū Sa’īd al-Sīrāfī.

979                 Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.

980                   al-Baghdadi

980                 Ibn Sina(Avicenna)Persian physician  Aristotelian philosopher.and philosopher from Bukhara. The Latin translation of his Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) was a highly regarded medical text in Europe until the sixteenth century. -1037

981                 Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor) at Rueda and is forced to begin paying tribute to the Caliph of Cordova

981                 End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.

982                 Death of the- Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula.

983                 Al-Azhar University, a center for religious and academic learning, is established in Cairo. It is also known as the oldest university in the world

983                 Buyid authority declines after the death of ‘Adud al-Dawla. Local rulers gain autonomy in the provinces.

984                 Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.

985                 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona

986                 -87 Subuktigin rules Ghazni; annexes territory up to Peshawar 986-87,

986                 The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula.

988                 Count Vladimir of Kiev embraces Eastern Orthodox Christianity

989                 Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula.

989                   Al-Jayyani

990                 The Seljuks, nomads from Turkmenistan, convert to Sunni Islam. Having developed a highly effective cavalry of nomads, they soon enter Uzbekistan, Khazakstan and Kwarazm

991                 Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of AI Qadir in Baghdad

991                 Venice sends embassies to the Arab Mediterranean princes.

991                 Death of al-‘Āmirī

991                 -1031 Caliphate of al-Qadir after the deposition of at-Ta’i’. Supports traditionalist orthodoxy.

991                 -1124 The Turkish Qarakhanids (or llek-Khans) in Transoxiana (Bukhara) and eastern Turkestan. With the end of Samanid authority in central Asia, the Oxus becomes the dividing-line between the Qarakhanids and the Ghaznavids. The Oghuz in Transoxiana and Khwarazm establish themselves at Jand, on the Syr Darya (Jaxartes), and act as the mercernaries of the Seljuq clan in the service of the Qarakhanids.

992                 Turkish tribes of the Oghuz (Ghuzz) advance from the Kirghizian steppe towards Transoxiana and Khurasan. The clan of Seljuq (SelchÅq), a chief of the Oghuz, having converted to Islam, support the Samanids against the Qarakhanids in the fight for Bukhara (Qarakhanid conquest 992)

994                 Death of the Baghdad chief judge and man of letters al-Tanukhi.

995                 -1017 Khwarazmshahs of the Ma’munids in Gurganj..

996                 -1021Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion.

996                 Pope Pious XI declares the Crusades against Muslims.

996                 Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis.

997                 Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.

997                 August 11, 997 Muslim forces under Almanzor arrive at the city of Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Almanzor burns it to the ground.

997                 July 03, 997 Under the leadership of Almanzor, Muslim forces march out of the city of Cordova and head north to capture Christian lands.

997                 Mahmud, the “Sword of Islam,” ruler of a Turkish dynasty in Gujarat, raids northwestern India until his death in 1030

998                 Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni.

998                 -1030 Reign of Mahmud of Ghazna, who led campaigns into northwest India (Punjab, 1001-21) and put the conquered territories under Islamic authority in the name of the ‘Abbasid caliph, and who extended his rule over Khurasan, Khwarazm and western Persia

999                 By the end of this century, global Muslim population was estimated at 10 million.

999                 Large scale Turkish migrations into Central Asia.Kara Khani Turks occupy Bukhara. Mahmud of Ghazna annexes Khorasan.  Mahmoud of Ghazna gains control of Khorasan and Afghanistan. Establishes Ghazni as his capital and transforms it into one the leading cultural centers in Asia.

999                 Bagauda rules as first King of Kano (modern day Northern Nigeria).

999                 End of the Samanids.

999                  Bughra Khan of Karahan Turks capture Bukhara.