12th Century


1100                Aflah

1100                Al Ghazzali writes a powerful diatribe, Tahaffuz al Falsafa, against speculative philosophy. In Ihya al Uloom, he accords tasawwuf an honored position in the Islamic sciences.

1100                Baldwin, count of Edessa, escapes an ambush near Beirut and proclaims himself king of Jerusalem.

1100                CE, 493 A.H Berbers, who had long been Muslims, battle for power.

1100                Urban families monopolisc thc post of ra’is in Syria and upper Mesopotamia the Nisan family rules in Amid, the Badi’ family in Aleppo.

1100                Crusaders claim fiefdoms in Holy Land. Baldwin of Bouillon becomes Count of Edessa in the new Holy Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond of Toulouse becomes Count of Tripoli. Bohemund of Otranto becomes Prince of Antioch.

1100                Islamic rule weakens because of power struggles among Islamic leaders and Christian crusades.

1100                -1200s Sufi orders (turuq) are founded.

1100                -30 Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem (Latin kingdom 1100-87, in Acre until 1291).

1100                Afghanistan falls under the control of Ghorid rulers until 1215 CE.

1100               Ghazali and “kalam” (rational theology)

1101                Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Musta’li, accession of al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah. 1101-30

1101                Shaykh Abdullah Arif  introduces Islam into the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.

1101                           Death of the  Fatimid Caliph al-Musta’li, accession of al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah.

1101                Death or the Fatimid Caliph Al Mustaali, accession of Al Aamir.

1104                Crusaders capture Acre

1104                Tughtigin, atabeg of the Seljuq Duqaq, succeeds him as ruler of Damascus on his death.

1104                – Muslim victory at Harran, which checks the Crusaders’ eastward advance.

1104                Crusaders capture Acre

1104                The Crusaders seize Acre, a Levantine port city.

1105                                    Death of Sultan Berkiyaruq, Muhammad sole Sultan.

1105                – – Death of theSeljukSultanBarkiyaruq, accession Of Mehmed I of Great Seljuk.

1105                Death of Sultan Berkiyaruq, Muhammad sole Sultan.

1105                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of Muhammad.

1105                            Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of Muhammad.
1106                            Death of the AI Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin.
1107                            Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of Malik Shah.
1108                            Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.

1105                -18 Reunification of the Seljuq empire under Muhammad I ibn Malikshah. His brother Sanjar rules eastem Persia (from 1097).

1106                Death of the AI Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin. emir of the Murabitun.

1106                -43 ‘Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashufin, ruler of Islamic Spain and North Africa. Decline of power of the Almoravids, from 1120 in conflict with the Almohad movement.

1106                Ali ibn Yusuf becomes sultan of the Almoravid dynasty; he will eventually solidify the dynasty’s control over most of northwest Africa and Spain.

1106                Death of the AI Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin.
1107                Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of Malik Shah.
1108                Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.
1116                Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Rukn ud Din Masud.
1118                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians capture Saragossa.
1121                Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Aamir, accession of AI Hafiz.

1107                Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan I, succession of Malik Shah of Rüm.

1107                Registration and redistribution of land concessions in Egypt. The Seljuq Qãlãch Arslan I falls by the Khabur River (upper Mesopotamia) in a battle with the Seljuqs of Iraq. The power of his successors remains restricted to central Anatolia (capital Konya)

1108                Death of theZiridruler Tamin, accession of  Yahya of Zirid.

1108                Two coalitions made up of Crusaders and Muslims confront one another near Tel

1109                Agreement of Christian princes before Tnpoli on territorial claims in the Orient. Tripoli under siege falls to the Crusaders.

1109                Fall of Tripoli after a 2000-day siege.

1110                Fall of Beirut and Saida.

1111                Death of al -Ghazali, critic of speculative theology and of philosophy, and also in particular of the militant Shi’ite Isma’iliyya. He was accounted a renewer of the faith in the spirit of the Sunni tradition and Sufi piety.

1111                – Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, organizes a riot against the caliph of Baghdad to demand intervention against the Frankish occupation.

1113                Death of the Seljuq Ridwan of Aleppo, succeeded by his son Alp Arslan (until 1114). For the next 25 years Aleppo remains under the rule of various lines of Seljuqs and Artuqids. Saragossa falls to Christian Aragon.

1113                Maudud, a Seljuk officer from Mosul, defeats King Baldwin of Jerusalem.

1115                Alliance of Muslim and Frankish princes of Syria against an army dispatched by the sultan.

1116                – – Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Mas’ud of Rüm.

1116                            Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Rukn ud Din Masud.
1118                            Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians capture Saragossa.

1118                Arabs import gunpowder from China (a mixture of potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal) and arms and artillery are invented

1118                The Seljuk empire is separated into smaller, independent states due to internal disputes over the inheritance of the Sultanate after the death of Sultan Malik Shah I.

1118                vAfter the death of Muhammad I ibn Malikshah, the Seliuq empire breaks up finally into independent small states of the sultans of Nishapur who rule Khurasan, and Baghdad who rule Iraq and westem Persia, and Anatolia-from Konya. In addition, there are independent principalities of the Atabegs in Syria, upper Mesopotamia and Azarbaijan.

1118                – . Death of the Abbasid Caliphal-Mustazhir,

1118                – 35 Caliphate of al-Mustarshid.

1118                Al Mustarshid, Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.

1118                –1135 Al-MustarshidAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1118                -57 Sanjar, the son of Malikshah, from 1097 the ruler of eastern Persia (Khurasan) becomes supreme sultan of the Seljuq house after the death of his brother Muhammad. The Ghaznavids become tributaries of the Seliuqs.

1118                accession of al-Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians captureZaragoza.

1119                Ilghazi, ruler of Aleppo, crushes the Crusaders at Sarmada.

1120                Muslim scholar Ibn Tumart of the Masmuda Berber tribe, a followerd of al­Ashari who claims to be the mahdi, launches the al­MuwahhidunAlmohad movement in Algeria ruled by a Council of Ten that rebels against Almoravid rule

1120                Islam continues to spread throughout Asia. Malaysian traders interact with Muslims who teach them about Islam.

1120                -21 Muhammad ibn Tumart (d. 1130) founder of the religious reform movement of the Muwahhidun (Almohads), is recognised as Mahdi by the Masmuda Berbers. From the Atlas he and his general ‘Abd al-Mu’min begin a campaign against the Almoravids of Marrakesh.

1121                Death of the Fatimid ruler Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, accession of Al-Hafiz.

1123                CE The greatest of the Islamic poets is a Persian named Umar Khayyam. His poem The Rubaiyat is most popular in the West due to its use by Victorian Edward Fitzgerald.

1123                Omar Khayyam, the greatest of the Islamic poets, writes The Rubaiyat which becomes popular in the West.

1124                Death of Hassan al Sabbah, leader of the Assassins.

1124                – The Crusaders take Tyre. They now occupy the entire coast, except for Ascalon.

1125                Ibn al-Khashab is murdered by the Assassins sect.

1126                Archbishop Raymond establishes a school in Toledo to translate Arabic books into Latin.

1126                CE In Spain, the Aristotelian Averroes of Cordova is the last important Islamic philosopher. He supports the official faith in public and is an extreme rationalist outside of the public realm. He dies in 1198 CE.

1126                Death of Aḥmad al-Ghazālī

1126                -1198  Ibn Rushd (Averroës) Spanish-born Islamic philosopher who tried to reconcile the contradictions between aristotelian ideas of studying nature through observation and reason, and religious truth. His writings and translations had considerable influence in Europe.

1126                -98 Life of Averroës, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.

1127                The Zangid Dynasty. Imad al-Din Zangi establishes himself as governor in Mosul and in Aleppo (in northern Syria).

1127                -46 ‘Imad al-Dil Zangi ibn Aq-Sonqur, atabeg of the Seljuq Mughith al-Din Mahmud, governor of Mosul, and, from 1129, of Aleppo, propagates jihÉd(Holy War) and opens the offensive against the Crusader states.

1127                -56  Thc Khwarazmshah Atsiz, at first governor in Gurganj of the Seliuq Sanjar, declares his

1127                Imad ud Din Zangi establishes the Zangi rule In Mosul.
1128                            Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz.

1128                 Failure of Crusaders thrust at Damscus. Zangi the ruler of Aleppo
1130                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril Beg II.

1130                Death of ibn Tumart, leader of the Al Muhaddithin.

1130                Death of Sana’i, first great poet of Sufi mysticism in the Persian language.

1130                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuk; accession of Toghrül II.

1130                The rise of the Almohads in North Africa. Abd al-Mamun becomes the first Khalifa of the Sunni-Berber dynastyin Morocco until 1169.

1130                CE Until 1269, the Al-Mohad dynasty rules North Africa.

1130                Tumart dies and Abd al­Mumin appoints himself Almohad caliph replacing the Council of Ten into a family­based monarchy, conquers most of Morocco and parts of Algeria and Tunisia

1130                  al-Samawal
1135                  al-Tusi, Sharaf

1130                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril Beg II.

1130                Death of the Seljuk SultanMahmud II of Great Seljuk; accessionof  Toghrül II.

1130                The Almohads ( al-Muwahhidun ), a strict Sunni dynasty from the area that is now southern Morocco and northern Mauritania, seize control of North Africa and Spain, defeating the Almoravids. Their reign will last until 1269, although from 1225 on their sphere of influence in Europe will be limited to Granada.

1131                Death of ‘Ayn al-Quḍat al-Hamadhānī

1132                Roger II of Sicily invites Muslim scholars to work at his court.
1134                            Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid; accession of Al Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II, accession of Masud.
1135                            Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph AI Rashid, accession of AI Muktafi.\

1134                Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid; accession of Al Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II, accession of Masud.

1135                Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustarshid

1135                Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph AI Rashid, accession of AI Muktafi.

1135                Zangi fails to take Damascus.

1135                accession of al-Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Toghrül II,accession of Mas’ud of Great Seljuk.

1135                Al-Tusi, Sharaf

1135                –1136 Ar-RashidAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1136                Deposition of the Abbasid CaliphAl-Rashid, Al-Muqtafi r. 1136–1160 Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1137                Zangi captures Fulk, king of Jerusalem, then releases him.

1139                Death of Ibn Bājja (Avempace)

1139                Birth of Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti, Sufi sage.

1140                Alliance of Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.

1141                Death of Judah Hallevi

1141                The Kara Kitai Turkomans defeat the Seljuks at Amu Darya.

1144                The Seljuks, under Zengi, recapture Edessa.Pope Eugene declares the Second Crusade.

1144                The Siege of Edessa. The Zangids reconquer one of four established Crusader states, the County of Edessa.

1144                the Muslims captures Edessa and destroy the oldest Crusader state

1144                THE SECOND CRUSADE (1144-1155)

1144                – Zangi takes Edessa, destroying the first of the four Frankish states of the Orient.
1144                            Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade.
1146                            Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.

1144                Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade.

1144                The Seljuks take Edessa in Syria, a Christian Crusader principality established during the First Crusade.

1145                The Second Crusade collapses in Anatolia but succeeds in capturing Lisbon in Portugal .End of the Murabitun rule in Andalus.

1145                The Almohades begin campaign to conquer Moorish lands in Spain. They conquer the last Moorish lands

1145                Pope Eugene III, on receiving word of the Muslim capture of Edessa, proclaims the Second Crusade.

1146                  Death of AHMAD B. SAEED, shareef of Makkah,  (1184)

1146                Nur al­Din becomes Seljuq governor of Aleppo at the death of his father Zengi

1146                The al Muhaddithin captures Morocco.The assassins murder Seljuk Emir Zengi.

1146                Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.

1147                In the Maghrib Al Moravids overthrown by the Almohad under Abd al-Mu’min.

1147                The Almohads, led by Abdul­Mu’min, conquer Morocco from the Almoravids and cause the collapse of the Almoravid dynasty
1147                            In the Maghrib AI Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads under Abul Mumin.
1148                            End of the Zirid rule’ in North Africa.

1147                In the Maghrib AI Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads under Abul Mumin.

1147                The Second Crusade, led by Roman Emperor Conrad III and Louis VII of France. Their armies are defeated by the Seljuks and fail at an attempt to seize Damascus.

1148                Death of Ibn Rushd alHafid (known in the West as Averroes), Andalusian qadi , physician and philosopher in the Aristotelian tradition, and author of important commentaries on the works of Aristotle.

1148                Normans from Sicily destroy the Zirid kingdom in north Africa

1148                Debacle at Damascus for a new Frankish expedition led by Conrad, emperor of Germany, and Louis VII, king of France.

1148                End of theZiridrule’ inNorth Africa.Siege of Damascus repulsed, thus effectively winning theSecond Crusade.

1148                The Second Crusade ends in humiliating failure when the demoralized Christian armies are forced to break off their siege of Damascus after only four days.
1149                            Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Hafiz, accession of AI Zafar.

1149                the Almohads conquer Sevilla and Cordoba in Spain

1150                Palestine is conquered by the Crusaders

1152                The Almohads conquer Algeria from the Almoravids and destroy the Hammadid kingdom
of Al Azzid

1152                            Death of the Seljuk Sultan Masud, accession of Malik Shah II. Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa.
1153                            Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I1, accession of Muhammad II.
1154                            Death of the Fatimid Caliph AI Zafar, accession of AI Faiz.

1154                Nur ad Din Mahmud, song of Zangi, captures Damascus. The cartographer, geographer and botanist al-Idrisi (b.1099-1166) creates a world map and accompanying book, GEOGRAPHY. King Roger II of Sicily invites him to create maps at his court. At the service of Roger II, he creates a map that is one the most detailed maps to be made in the Middle Ages.

1154                Death of the Fatimid Caliphaz-Zafar, accession of Al-Faiz. the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo.

1154                Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus, unifying Muslim Syria under his authority.
1156                            Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Rukn ud Din Masid, accession of Arsalan II.

1157                The al Muhaddithin captures Andalus.

1158                the Almohads conquer Tunisia from the Almoravids

1159                            Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of Gulaiman..

1160                Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtafi, accession of al-Mustanjid. –1170 Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Faiz, accession of al-Adid.

1160                Death of the Fatimid Caliphal-Faiz,accession of al-Adid.

1160                ‘s Death of Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī.
1161                            Death of the Seljuk Sulaiman, accession of Arsalan Shah.

1163                The Seljuks and the Crusaders compete for influence in Fatimid Egypt.

1163                -1169 The struggle for Egypt. Shirkuh, lieutenant of Nur al-Din, finally wins. Proclaimed vizier, he dies two months later. He is succeeded by his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).

1163                Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abul Mumin, accession of Abu Yaqub Yusuf. I, Almohad Caliph

1165                  Death of MUSAED B. SAEED,shareef of Makkah,  (1165)

1165                Jews in Yemen forced into converting to Islam or killed.

1166                Death of Shaykh Abdul Qader Jeelani of Baghdad, called Shaykh ul Mashaiq, founder of the Qadariya Sufi order.Death of the geographer, al Idrisi.

1167                Death of Abraham Ibn Ezra

1168                Arabs recapture Cairo, driving out Christian crusaders.

1169                The Almohad Dynasty falls from power in Morocco. Salah-al Din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub (Saladin) becomes vizier of Egypt until 1193 and holds power as sultan over Muslim forces from 1174 onward.

1169                Seljuq governor Nur al­Din of Aleppo sends his Kurdish general Shirkuh and Shirku’s nephew Saladin Ayubbid to invade Egypt

  1. Frankish armies withdraw from Egypt. (January 2)

1170                            Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustanjid, accession of Al Mustazii

1170                –1180 Al-MustadiAbbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1170                Seljuq governor Nur al­Din of Aleppo conquers Mosul, thus reuniting Syria and Mesopotamia

1171                Nephew of Shirkuh, Salah ad-Din (a legendary Kurdish general in Islam and the West) deposes the last Fatimid Khalifa in Egypt.

1171                Death of theFatimidCaliphAl-Adid. End of the Fatimids.Saladin founds theAyyubid dynastyinEgypt.

1171                Saladin proclaims the overthrow of the Fatimid caliphate. Sole master of  Egypt, he finds himself in conflict with Nur al-Din.

1172                  Death of JAFFARB. SAEED, shareef of Makkah,  (1172)
1172                            Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah.

1172                the Almohads conquer Andalucia from the Almoravids, completing the reunification of Muslim Spain, and move the capital to Sevilla

1173                  Death of MUSAED B. SAEED , shareef of Makkah,  (1173)

1173                The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah.

1173                Ghiasuddin Ghori established the kingdom of Ghor in Afghanistan.

1174                Death of Nur al-Din – Saladin, in addition to his position as vizier of Egypt, becomes supreme sultan over Muslim forces fighting against the Christian crusaders.Saladin conquers Syria. Salah ad-Din captures Syria. He unifies Egypt and Syria and establishes the Abbuyid Dynasty.

1174                            Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria.

1175                            Ibn Rushd Averroes proclaims the two truths (religion for the uneducated masses and philosophy for the educated elite)
1175                The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.
1176                Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arsalan Shah, accession of Tughril Beg III.

1177                Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeats Saladin at Montgisard.

1177                Muhammed Ghori adds Multan, Uch, Dera Ismail Khan and Sindh to his dominions.

1178                  A Chinese document know as the Sung Document records the voyage of Muslim sailors to a land know as Mu-Lan-Pi (America). Mention of this document is contained in the publication, the Khotan Amiers, 1933

1179                Saladin besieges city of Tyre.

1179                Death of the Abbasid Caliph AI Mustazaii, accession of AI Nasir. –1225 Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

1179                Muhammed Ghori starts campaigns to capture Peshawar and Sialkot. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar..

1180                Saladin and Baldwin IV arrange a truce between them.

1180                Death of Abraham Ibn Daud

1182                Khwaja Muhammed Ghouse of Sindh introduces the Qadariya order into India and Pakistan.

1183                – Saladin takes Aleppo. Egypt and Syria now reunited under his aegis.

1184                            Death of ABDULLAH B. HASSAN,shareef of Makkah,  (1184)

1184                            Death of AHMAD B. SAEED, shareef of Makkah,  (1184)

1184                  Death of SAROOR B.  MUSAID, shareef of Makkah,  (1184)

1185                Death in Marrakesh of Ibn Tufayl, a Moorish physician who served as court physician and general adviser to the Almohad ruler Abu Ya’qub Yusuf from 1163 to 1184.
1185                Death of the AI Mohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf, accession of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
1186                The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznvaids in the Punjab.

1187                The year of Islamic victory Saladin al-Ayyubi, crushes the Crusaders armies at Hittin, near Lake Tiberias. He reconquers Jerusalem and the greater part of the Crusaders territories. The Crusaders now hold only Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch.,  Saladin gives generous terms to the defeated Christian armies.

1188                Pope Clement III launches the Third Crusade. (1187-1192)

1189                Khwaja Moeenuddin Chisti moves to Ajmer, India and establishes the Chistiya order.

1190                King Richard of England proposes a marriage between his sister and Saifuddin, brother of Salahuddin and for the two together to rule Jerusalem. The proposal is opposed by the Crusaders and is abandoned.

1190-92           Setback for Saladin at Acre. Intervention of Richard the Lionheart, king of England, enables the Crusaders to recover several cities from the sultan, but not Jerusalem.

1191                Accra surrenders to the Crusaders after a long siege.

1191                Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.Mohammed Ghori suffers a defeat at the Battle of Tarain and is forced to withdraw towards Kabul

1192                -1290– the ILBARI or “Slave” dynasty Qutb ud-Din Aibak of the Ilbari Turks has seized Delhi, acting as a general for Muhammad Ghuri (and technically a military “slave” of his). He inaugurates the Ilbari dynasty that lays the foundations for the Delhi Sultanate. He begins to build the Qutb Minar and the Quvvat ul-Islam mosque. Aibak formally rules as Sultan only after Muhammad Ghuri is assassinated (1206) back in Afghanistan

1192                Saladin signs the Treaty of Ramla with King Richard I of England tha grants the Christians a small kingdom outside Jerusalem

1192                Second Battle of Tarain. Muhammad of Ghor, governor of Ghazni, defeats the armies of the Rajput Chauhan dynasty of North India. Delhi is open to Muslim armies.

1193                Saladin dies and his brother Malik Adil becomes sultan of Egypt and Syria  Saladin dies in Damascus at the age of 55. After several years of civil war, his empire is reunited under the authority of his brother al-Adil. and the division of the Ayyubid Empire. Second battle of Tarain.

1194                            Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.

1194                            THE FOURTH AND FIFTH CRUSADES (1194-1201)

1194                            The KhwarazmShah Tekish defeats the last Seljuq sultan of Persia.

1195                            The Almohad Abu Yusuf Ya’qub alMansur wins an important victory at Alarcos over the Castilians..

1195                            Alfonso VIII of Castilla is defeated by the Almohads at Alarcos

1196                              Death of ABDULLAH B. SAEED, shareef of Makkah,  (1196)

1196                            The al Muhaddith emir al Mansur defeats the Crusaders at the Battle of Alarcos.

1196                            -1549 The Berber dynasty of the Marinids of Morocco (until 1269 beside the Almohads)

1197                            Muhammad of Ghor conquers the Indian state of Gujarat.

1198                            Death of ibn Rushd, of the great world philosophers.

1198                            Death of the philosopher Ibn Rushd in Marrakesh. Known in the West as Averroës, he was the author of a series of summaries and commentaries on Aristotle and Plato that proved extremely influential in Europe and in the Islamic World for hundreds of years. They were produced by commission of the Almohad caliph Abu Ya’qub Yusuf.

1199                                 Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din.  Death of the Almohad ruler Yaqub, Almohad Caliph; accession of an-Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 6 per cent of the total.

1199                            Pope Innocent III declares the Fourth Crusade.

1199                            -1214 The Almohad Muhammad alNasir in North Africa and Spain. Successes of the Reconquista.

1200                            -20 The empire of the KhwarazmShah ‘Ala’ alDin Muhammad is at its height. He restores the Iranian monarchy, but disputes the authority of the caliph alNasir.

1200                            s– the Suhrawardi Sufis Shaikh Baha ud-Din Zakariya (1182-12678) of Multan introduces the Suhrawardi Sufi order, which becomes popular in what is now Pakistan