19th Century

1800                          C.E. Approximately 30 percent of Africans forced into slavery in the United States are Muslim.

1800                          A terrible epidemic of plague in Baghdad, the Wahhabis took advantage of circumstances to attack Karbala’ and its surroundings.


1801                          The Ottomans and the British defeat Napoleon’s troops in Egypt, while Russia annexes Georgia 1801Thomas Jefferson orders the bombing of the barbary states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis and Tripoli after Yusuf Karamanli, the ruler of Tripoli, demands ransom from the USA

1801                          The Wahhabis raid Karbala. Wahhabi movement spreads to Iraq. The Wahhabis raid the Hejaz.

1802                         Wahabis from Arabia massacre the Shiite population of Karbala in Ottoman Iraq

1802                         When Mehmet I arrives in Egypt as an Ottoman official, power is divided among the Ottomans, the Mamluks and the Albanian troops

1803                          Muhammed Ali becomes the Ottoman governor of Egypt; starts a long series of reforms

1803                          – 1811Followers of the puritanical Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the Wahhabis, occupy Mecca and Medina.

1803                          Because of the fear of further attacks on al-Najaf from the Wahhabis, Shaykh Ja‘far decided to build a fortified rampart to defend the city. He charged with this project al-Sadr al-A‘zam Nizam al-Dawla Muhammad Husayn Khan (d. 1239/1823), the minister of Fath ‘All Shah. The wall was built between the years 1218/1803 and 1227/1815 and was equipped to resist the invasion. Al-Najaf became a real fortress that could only be invested with difficulty, and it was that same rampart which held up the British forces in 1336/1918.

1803                          — Lord Lake takes Delhi As part of Wellesley’s war against the Marathas, Lord Lake takes Delhi. Shah ‘Alam II (1760-1806) formally makes over Delhi to British custody

1803                          The historian al-Jabarti relates that the Wahhabis ibn Sa‘ud b. Abd al-Aziz  sacked the sepulchre of the Prophet and seized all the jewellery and relics which constituted the fabulous treasures that were inside it…

1803                          Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. when Abdul Aziz was leading Asr Salat in Dir’aiyah. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan..

1803                          Mehmet I sides with the Mamluks and deposes the Ottoman governor of Egypt

1803                          Muhammed Ali becomes the Ottoman governor of Egypt; starts a long series of reforms. Denmark abolishes the slave trade..

1804                          Uprising under George Petrovich against Janissary garrison at Belgrade marked beginning of Serbian Revolution.

1804                          Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.

1804                          -1817: Series of Serbian uprisings ends in establishment of small autonomous Serbian principality within Ottoman Empire under Prince Milos Obrenovic.

1805                          Faraizi movementlaunched in Bengal.

1805                          Sultan Selim III yields to the demand that Muhammad Ali be appointed wāli of Egypt.

1805                           Saud bin Abdul Aziz captured Medina defeating the Ottoman Empire garrison.

1805                          Jews are massacred in Algeria

1805                         Mehemet Ali, an Albanian Turk, is recognized by the Ottomans as governor of Egypt, and proceeds to reform the economy around sugar and cotton

1805                          Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan, institutes reform and begins the modernization of Egypt

1806                          Khanate of Khivacame into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.

1806                          -37– reign of Akbar Shah II. The next to last Mughal emperor. British armies enter Delhi..

1807      Uthman dan Fuduye establishes the Sokoto Caliphate. Muhammed Ali Pasha beats back a British attempt to seize Alexandria, Egypt.

1807                          Yarrow Mamout, an African Muslim slave, is set free in Washington DC, and later becomes one of the first shareholders of the second chartered bank in America, the Columbia Bank. Yarrow may have lived to be more than 128 years old, the oldest person in American history. Two portraits of Yarrow done by well known artists are on public display. The first, painted by Charles W. Peal in 1819 was done when Yarrow was 100 years old. It hangs in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. A second portrait completed by James Simpson in 1828, almost a decade later, can be seen in the Peabody Room at the Georgetown Public Library, Washington DC.

1807                                          -1837 Apparently inspired to some degree by the Wahhabi victories in Arabia, a group of pilgrims returns to West Sumatra and initiates an aggressive campaign for reform. Known as the Padris, their campaign was eventually quashed after Dutch intervention.

1807                                          -76Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine


1807                          Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.

1807                          Omar ibn Said (1773-1864), a West African scholar, is captured and enslaved. He is brought to North Carolina and remained enslaved until his death. His autobiography, LIFE OF OMAR IBN SAID, is the earliest maintained manuscript written by a Muslim in America.


1807                          Selim III deposed by Janissaries.

1807                          Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.

1807                          -1837 Apparently inspired to some degree by the Wahhabi victories in Arabia, a group of pilgrims returns to West Sumatra and initiates an aggressive campaign for reform. Known as the Padris, their campaign was eventually quashed after Dutch intervention.

1807                          -76Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.

1808                          Bairakdar, the ayan of Rusçuk, having arrived in Constantinople too late to restore Selim III (who had been strangled), installed Mahmud II, the sole surviving member of the Ottoman line.

1808                          The United States abolishes the slave trade.

1809                          Al Haj Umar ibn Sayyid is enslaved in Charleston after running away. In jail, he is visited by John Owen and taken to Blade County and placed on the Owen plantation. John Owen later became Governor of North Carolina. It has been reported that Umar lived to be 100 years old.

1811                          Birth of Siyyid Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad known as theBáb, founderof Bábí movement.

1811                          Muhammad Ali has Mamluks massacred in the Citadel of Cairo, thereby consolidating his absolute power.

1811                          British occupied Indonesia.

1812                           Treaty of Bucharest between Ottoman Empire and Russia end a war of 6 years

1812                          Islamic teacher Usumanu dan Fodio establishes the Sokoto Caliphate in Nigeria.

1812                          Mehemet Ali appoints a supreme leader of all Sufi orders, reporting to the state

1812                          Muhammed Ali of Egypt recaptures Mecca and Hejaz from the Wahhabis (1812-15). and Saudis expelledfrom Hejaz.

1813                          The Russo-Persian War ends with the Treaty of Gulistan. Persia cedes Azerbaijan to Russia.

1814                          Iranexecuted treaty of alliance with theBritishknown as theDefinitive Treaty.

1814                          Death of Saud bin Abdul Aziz.


1814                          King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.

1814                          -27– Ghazi ud-Din Haidar in AvadhThe reign of the sixth Nawab of Avadh, the Company’s choice, who duly offers more concessions and cash.

1815                          Second Serbian Uprising.

1816                          British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch..

1817                          -Birth Of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

1817                          Death of Uthman dan Fuduye, mujahid in West Africa.Muhammed Bello becomes Caliph of the Sokoto Empire.

1817                                          al-Mirza Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Nabi al-Naysaburi al-Akhbarl,  was killed in 1232/1817. He had encountered the Usuli school represented by al-Bahbahanl and his disciples in the city of Karbala’, and taken up opposition to them.

1817                          The Ottomans allow Serbians limited self-government after revolt.

1818                          Conclusion of Egypt’s seven-year campaign against the Wahabis in Arabia, who had occupiied Mecca and Medina and threatened Syria. As a result, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean fell under Egyptian control.


1818                          Holland abolishes the slave trade..

1818                         Mehmet’s son Ibrahim conquers Arabia from the Saudis on behalf of the Ottoman emperor

1819                                          T.S. Raffles establishes a British trading post on Singapore following the British interregnum in Java..

1820                                          Britain forces a protectorate on seven pearl­fishing emirates (“Trucial States”) of the Arabian peninsula, notably Abu Dhabi and Dubai 03/01/2017 A timeline and history of the Arabs

1820                         Maronites lead a peasant revolt against their feudal lords in Lebanon

1821                          – 1830The Greek War of Independence. Greece, France and Britain from alliance against Turkey. The Ottomans are defeated and Greece gains full independence.

1821                                          The most outstanding event of this era was the reconciliation which Shaykh Musa Kashif al-Ghita’, the son of Shaykh Ja‘far (1181-1241/1767- 1826), had achieved between the two main powers, the Ottoman and Qajarite states, after a battle took place between invading Ottoman forces and Persians t at Khanaqin on the Iranian border in the year 1237/1821. This reconciliation was impossible to achieve without the complete defeat of the Turkish forces in which was the Turks suffered big casualties and many of their soldiers and officers were taken prisoners.1

1821                           Alexander Ypsilantis led Greek insurgents across the river Prut into Danubian Principalities on March 6 (n.s.) to begin the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.

1821                         Egypt begins growing cotton

1822             Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.

1885                          Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.

1822                          Death of Maulay IsmailinMorocco..

1822                          Greek assembly at Epidauros declared Greek independence and drew up an organic statute establishing a parliament and executive directory…

1822                          Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Sudan on behalf of the Ottoman empire

1824                          Egyptian governor Mehmet I is made governor of Crete by the Ottomans

1824                          Riyadh is made capital of the Saudi kingdom

1825                          Outbreak of the Java War, in which Prince Diponogoro appeals to local Muslim leaders with a call to confront the Dutch in fighting for the country and for the restoration of Islamic rule.

1825                          Lebanon’s governor Bashir II, a Maronite, defeats his Druze enemies

1826                          Janissaries massacred by forces loyal to Mahmud II after they revolted following formation of new army corps; Ottoman fleet is sunk at Navarino

1827                          April 4,. Russia, France, and Britain send a note to Sultan of Turkey urging truce in war with Greece.

1827                          Malayabecame a preserve of theBritishaccording toAngloNetherlandtreaty in 1824.

1827                          -37– reign of Nasir ud-Din Haidar in AvadhThe reign of the seventh Nawab of Avadh, who tries desperately to find chinks in the British armor that hems him in.

1827                            19 October The reign of the eighth Nawab of Avadh Nasir-ud-din Haidar Shah Jahan; increasingly focused only on Shi’a court  elite in Lucknow (7 July 1837)


1827                          Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland treaty in 1824.

1827                          Naval Battle of Navarino pits European axis against the Ottomans.Shaykh Ahmed Lobo establishes the kingdom of Lobo in West Africa.


1828                          Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori, a former prince from West Africa and now a slave on a Georgia plantation, is freed by the order of Secretary of State Henry Clay and President John Quincy Adams. He was known to many during his lifetime as “The Prince of the Slaves.” A drawing of him, done by Henry Inman, is displayed in the Library of Congress. His life has also been well-documented.

1828                           Iran cedes control of Caucasus to Russia after second Russo-Persian war.

1828 – Iran cedes control of Caucasus to Russia after second Russo-Persian war

1828                          Massacre of Jews in Baghdad 1830France occupies Ottoman Algiers


1828                          War between Russia and the Ottomans over control of the Black Sea. Russia advances into Anatolia..

1829                           Treaty of Adrianople ends the war Russo Turkish war 1828

1830                          Algeria is occupied by France.

1830             1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.  (Albania,)


1830                          Greece regains independence from Ottomans. Greece breaks off from the Ottoman Empire.

1830                          French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.


1831                          – 1841Ottoman Syria is conquered by Muhammad Ali.

1831                          Syed Ahmad BarelviandShah Ismailleaders of  JihadmovementinIndiafell fighting theSikhsinBalakot.

1832                          Apr. 10,. Turkey declare war  om Mohammad Ali, Khedive of Egypt..

1832                           Turksdefeated in the battle of KonyabyEgyptianforces.


1832                          Abd al ­Qadir declares a state in western Algeria

1832                          Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.

1832                          Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.

1833                          At the urging of France, the Convention of Kütahya ended the war between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire and provided that the empire grant the sultan of Egypt all of Syria and Adana.

1833                          The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi established alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Russia and provided that the Ottomans would close the Dardanelles to any foreign warships at the Russians’ request.

1833                          Egypt inaugurates its Polytechnic school

1833                         Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Syria from the Ottoman Empire


1834                           Abdul Qadir of Algeria recognized as ruler of the area under his control by the French.


1834                          Beginning of Muslim resistance to the Russians in Daghestan, Crimea and the Caucasus.

1835                          (1251/1835), Aden invaded by Egypt and the Egyptian army

1835                          Abd al-Qadir revolts against French occupation and defeats them at Macta River in Algeria.

1835                          Macauley’s “Minute on Education” advocates English-medium instruction, to create a class of educated and Anglicized Indians


1835                          The Ottomans defeat the French at Malta.

1835             The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.

1835                          The Ottomans remove the Qaramanli dynasty from power in Tripolitania

1836                          The British, in corroboration with ex-king Shah Shuja, invade Afghanistan in response to growing Russian and Persian influence in the region. Shuja re-takes the throne in 1839 only to be killed three years later. Afghan forces fight fervently against British forces, and by 1843 the nation reasserts its independence.

1837                          English displaces Persian English displaces Persian as the official language of the Courts in British India

1837                          -1857– reign of Bahadur Shah Siraj ud-Din Bahadur Shah “Zafar,” the last Mughal emperor

1837                          Muhammad Ali al­Sanusi founds the Sanusi Sufi order in Ottoman Cyneraica that de facto rules over the region (eastern Libya)

1837                          Sanusiya Sufi brotherhood is founded in North Africa.

1838                          British invasion of Afghanistan ends in failure.

1839                          – 1842The Afghans defeat the British in the first Anglo-Afghan War.

1839                          – 1861Sultan Abdulhamid reforms and modernizes the institutions of the Ottoman Empire.

1839                          Defeat of Ottoman Empire by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib.

1839                          The port city of Aden, Yemen is occupied by the British.

1839                          In response to threats by Egytptian wāli Muhammad Ali to declare himself independent, an Ottoman army began (March) the invasion of Syria from the Euphrates. It was defeated (June 24) by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib. On July 1 the Turkish fleet surrendered itself (possibly by an act of treachery) to Muhammad Ali in Alexandria.

1839                          Sayyid Sa’id, ruler of Oman orders his ship The Sultana to set sail to America on a trade mission, reaching New York, April 30, 1840. And although the voyage was not a commercial success, it marks the point of Muslims successful friendly relations with America, which still continues to exist between many of the Islamic nations and the United States of today.

1839                          The Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Supreme Edict of the Rose House) issued by sultan Abdülmecid I, which began the Tanzimât reforms of the Ottoman Empire.

1839                          Abdul Mecit I becomes Ottoman Sultan.Beginning of Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire.

1840                                          Muhammad ‘Ali Basha ordered his troops’ withdrawal from Arabian Peninsula in 1256/1840. This marked the end of Egyptian influence in the Arabian Peninsula.


1840                          British frees occupied Aden.

1840                          Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.

1840                         Britain and Austria force Egypt to surrender Syria to the Ottomans and central Arabia to the Saudis, and remove Bashir II from power in Lebanon, but acknowledge Mehmet’s dynasty

1840                          France starts colonization of Algeria.

1841                          State of Adamawaestablished by Adams adjacent toNigeria.

1841                          The Straits Convention

1842                                          Death of Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809. He then ruled from 1839 until his death in 1842. Shuja Shah was of the Sadduzai line of the Abdali group of Pashtuns. He became the fifth Emir of Afghanistan.[1]

1842                          Shah Shujaassassinated ending the Durrani rule inAfghanistan.

1842                          -47– reign of Amjad Ali Shah in Avadh.

1842                          Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to Morocco.

1843                          January -Apr.  British forces under Charles Napier conquer Sind, in lower valley of Indus. But war not declared until after Indian attack on British Residency, Feb. 15th

1844                          France defeats Abd al­Qadir and Morocco 1846The Bey of Tunis abolishes slavery

1846                          French troops defeat Algerian Mujahideens but sustain     heavy losses. (January 2)

1846                          The Bank Act of 1846 in England confers legal recognition on the negotiability of credit documents.

1847                          Amir Abdul Qadirsurrendred toFranceunder the condition of safe conduct to aMuslimcountry of his choice, but France violated itspledge and sent him as a captive to France.

1847                          -56– reign of Vajid Ali Shah in Avadh


1847                          France invades all of Algeria. There are 109,000 Europeans in Algeria, of which 47,000 are French

1848                          Alliance between Abu Dhabi and other sheikdoms against Sharjah. (January 2)

1848                         Mehmet I dies and his inept grandson Abbas becomes the new ruler of Egypt

1848                          Nasiruddin Shah ascends the throne of Persia.

1849                          Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.

1850                                          sNon-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims

1850                          TheBábis executed by thePersiangovernment. Táhirih, arenowned poetess and staunch advocate of Bábismalso executed.

1850                          Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.. The Bahai schism starts in Persia. The Bahai schism starts in Persia

1850                          Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims.

1851                          Mid-19th century Increasing Dutch fears of an Islamic resistance to their presence in the archipelago, signaled by the Dutch placing various impediments to Muslim pilgrims traveling to and from Makkah, and an increased surveillance of writings circulating among local Muslim communities.

1851                          The British build a railroad linking Alexandria with Suez (1851-54).

1852                          Release of Amir Abdul QadirbyNapoleon III. He settled inOttoman Empire.

1852                          Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Baha’i faith.


1853                          – 1856The Crimean War. European powers fear Russian expansion. The allied forces of England, France, the Ottomans and Sardinia defeat Russia.

1853                          : After a series of intrigues ostensibly designed to enable it to act as protector of Orthodox Christians in Ottoman territories failed, Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in March. The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October beginning the Crimean War. Great Britain and France would declare war on Russia the following March.

1853                          The Tijaniya Sufi brotherhood is established in West Africa.

1854                          At Napoleon’s suggestion the British and French fleets entered the BLACK Sea, to protect the Turkish coasts and transport. (January 3)

1854                          A British firm builds the first railway in Egypt, which is also the first railway in the Ottoman Empire as well as Africa and the Middle East

1854                          Abbas is assassinated and French­educated Mehmet’s son Said becomes governor of Egypt

1854                          Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt grants a concession to French Engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps to build the Suez Canal. Egypt borrows funds from international bankers to complete the canal. The Ottomans take their first loan from international bankers.

1855                          Khiva annexed by Russia.

1856                          The United States cavalry hire a Muslim by the name of Hajji Ali to experiment with raising camels in Arizona.


1856                                          Hatt-ı Hümâyûnu (the Reform Edict of 1856) is issued on February 18 and constitutes the most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century. It guaranteed the lives and property of Christians, replaced the heads of churches with a national synod, provided full freedom of conscience and civil participation for adherents to all religions. The edict was forced on the sultan by the British, French and Austrians to forestall a Russian intervention.

1856                          Treaty of Paris (March 30) ends Crimean War, and admits Turkey into the European concert, whereby its independence and imperial integrity was guaranteed. Russia ceded the mouths of the Danube and Bessarabia, returned Kurs, relinquished its claim as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire and agreed to the neutralization of the Black Sea

1856                          The last Nawab of Avadh Wajid Ali Shah is deposed by a British coup in  and exiled to Calcutta


1856                          Oman loses Zanzibar

1857                    17 nov.-  British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after  332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to RangooninBurma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.

1857                          The first railroad in Africa, the Alexandria-Cairo railroad, is completed.

1858                                          Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule. The British East India Company is dissolved, and Parliament takes direct control of British India


1858                          Feudal holdings abolished in the Ottoman Empire.

1858                          The Russians capture Imam Shamil, Naqshbandi Imam in Daghestan. End of Muslim resistance in Chechnya and Daghestan.

1859                          – 1869The Suez Canal, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea, is constructed in Egypt.

1859                          Imam Shamillaid down arms beforeRussianforces and theIslamic State of Dagestanbecame a Russian province.

1859                          Death of Muhammed al Sanusi, Reformer, Sufi Shaykh of Libya.

1859                          Death of Muhammed al Sanusi, Reformer, Sufi Shaykh of Libya.


1860                          Masjid-e-Abu Hurairah, established inCardiff , ist the first mosqueinBritain.

1860                          Maulay Muhammaddefeated bySpain.

1860                           Civil War between Syrian Druzes and Marionite Christians erupted. Authorized by the European Powers, France sent expeditionary force which restored order by June 1861.

1860                          Alhajj Omar resists French colonization in Sene-Gambia.

1860                          Alhajj Omar resists French colonization in Sene-Gambia..

1860                          Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.


1860                          Spain invades Morocco

1860                         The Alliance Israelite Universelle is founded in Paris by Adolphe Cremieux to protect Jews in the Islamic world

1861                                The first school known to use Albanian language in modern times was opened in Shkodra.   (Albania,)

1861                          – 1867The rule of Sultan Abdul-Aziz. He depletes the finances of the Ottoman Empire and contracts foreign loans. The Empire is then under European control due to bankruptcy.

1861                          — Councils Act The Indian Councils Act gives Indians local electoral participation

1861                          Death of Faḍl al-Ḥaqq Khayrābādī

1861                          – Overthrow of theBambara Empireby the Toucouleur Empire.

1861                                          Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.

1861                          Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I died and is succeeded by Abdülaziz whose reign (1861-1876) is notable for the rapid spread of western influence (particularly Great Britain and France, allies of the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War), as evidenced by the first foreign loans, railroad construction, and public debt administration, and the rise of secular liberalism, shown by literary revival, translation of Western literature, rise of Turkish journalism and establishment of universities.

1861                          American Civil War (1861-65). The price of Egyptian cotton soars in world markets.

1861                          Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.

1865                          Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.

1871                          Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.

1879                          Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.

1861                          Muhammad Bey, governor of Tunisia, grants a liberal constitution

1861                          The Ottomans grant a special status to Lebanon which is to have a Christian governor, a Sunni prime minister and a Shia head of parliament

1861                          Tunisia proclaims the first constitution of the Arab world, granting civil rights and rights to foreigners and Jews to own land

1862                          –Faraizi movementfizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan.Overthrow of theMassina Empireby the Toucouleur Empire.

1863                          Banque Impériale Ottoamane established to function as Turkey’s central bank.

1863                          Abraham Lincoln proclaims the abolition of slavery.

1863                          Egypt opens the Egyptian Museum

1863                          Said dies and Ibrahim’s oldest living son Ismail becomes governor of Egypt, launching westernizing reforms that penalize the religious class and create a new landowning elite

1864                          More than 300 Jews are massacred between 1864 and 1880 in Marrakesh, Morocco .

1865                          Khoqand State liquidated by Russia..

1866                          Deoband The Dar ul-‘Ulum at Deoband is founded, and begins teaching traditionalist theology in Urdu

1867                          April 1, East India Company rule in Malay Straits settlements ends, and they become crown colony of Britain.

1867                          Serbian princes consolidate control over new state by expelling Ottoman garrison from Belgrade.

1868                          Muhammad Thani leads a revolt in Qatar against the Khalifah of Bahrein

1869                          November 16 – The opening of the Suez Canal dramatically increases steamship traffic in the Indian Ocean, which in turn facilitates increased travel and communications between Southeast Asia and Arabia.

1869                          18 Jews are killed in Tunisia

1869                          :Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.

1869                          Egypt opens the Cairo Opera House

1869                          Ferdinand de Lesseps, funded by the Egyptian government, builds the Suez Canal

1869                          The price of Egyptian cotton drops precipitously. Egyptian public debt mounts.

1869                          Egyptian public debt mounts. Tunisia falters on debt payments to European bankers. The International Debt Commission for Tunisia assumes control over Tunisian finances.

1870                                          -1924 C.E. Muslim immigrants from the Arab world voluntarily come to the United States until the Asian Exclusion Act is passed in 1924.

1870                          The Reverend Norman, a Methodist missionary, converts to Islam.

1870                          Tribal leader al­Muqrani leads an Algerian uprising against France

1871                                          the famine of al-Najaf in 1288

1871                          – 1879 The Shiite Iranian intellectual Jamal al­Din al­Afghani, The political activist establishes a group of Egyptian reformers while residing in Egypt.

1871                          –Tunisiarecognisedsuzeraintyof Ottoman Empirethrough afirman.

1871                          A unified Germany emerges as the most powerful continental power in Europe.

1873                          Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia.

1873                          Egypt opens the first school for girls .

1873                          Morocco’s sultan Hasan launches reforms opposed by the religious and political establishment

1873                          Beginning of Dutch colonial rule in Indonesia.

1873                          The Dutch invasion of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in northern Sumatra.

1873                         Tunisia’s governor Khayr al­Din launches European­style reforms

1874                          British begin the process of colonizing Malaya.

1874                          Syed Ahmed Khan founds the Aligarh College in India.

1875                          Egypt sells off its share in the Suez Canal Company to the British to partially offset its debts.

1875                          The British government purchases shares in the Suez Canal, borrowing money from the Rothschilds

1876                          Abdul Hamid II becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He institutes major reforms and improvements, including the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution, but it is later deferred.

1876                          – Constitutional monarchy in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)(first phase)

1876                          Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.

1876                          Ottoman Constitution is promulgated

1876                          -1878:Uprising in Bulgaria triggers Russo-Turkish war the following year. This ends in Turkish defeat and creation at Congress of Berlin of autonomous Bulgaria within the Ottoman Empire. Austria occupies Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia throws off last vestiges of autonomy, becoming formally independent and receiving territory to the south. Montenegro also gains territory at expense of Albanians.

1876                          -1908 Abdul Hamid II becomes the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph. He starts consolidation of ties with Muslim peoples worldwide. Egypt falters on debt payments. Britain and France appoint a Commission on Egyptian Public Debt with the power to confiscate revenues.

1876                          Egypt is officially bankrupt and its debt is managed by Britain and France

1877                          Victoria as Empress Queen Victoria assumes the title “Empress of India”

1877                                          1299/, al-Shirazi built a bridge over the Tigris river. He spent around 10,000 Ottoman gold Lire on it.

1877                          Russia invades the Ottoman Empire (1877-78). Russian troops advance to within ten miles of Istanbul and dictate capitulation terms to the Turks at the Treaty of San Stefano.

1878                          – 1879The Second Anglo Afghan War. Afghanistan’s foreign affairs are under the authority of the British.

1878                          — Aligarh MAO College Sir Sayyid’s great dream is realized, and the Aligarh Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College begins accepting students

1878                          – Conference of Berlin. Ottoman Empire loses territories to Russiaor Balkan countries

1878                          Death of Sabzawārī

1878                          — The British launch their second war against Afghanistan, but withdraw in the face of strong resistance two years later.

1878                                Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control. (Albania)

1878                              Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers.(Albania)

1878                          Adrianople fell to Russia.

1878                          Conference of Berlin. Ottoman Empire loses territories to Russia or Balkan countries

1878                          Congress of Berlin: Serbia and Montenegro are granted independence. Bulgaria is granted broad autonomy.

1878                           Ottoman Empire handed over Cyprus to Britain.

1878                          Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule..

1878                          Egypt is forced by Britain and France to accept international control over her finances. Treaty of Berlin results in effective dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

1879                                     Society for Printing of Albanian Writings, composed of Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Orthodox Albanians, founded in Constantinople.

1879                          Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.

1879                          Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe..

1879                          Britain and France force Khedive Ismail Pasha of Egypt to abdicate in favor of his son Tawfiq Pasha. Sultan Abdul Hamid acquiesces in the abdication.

1879                          Ismail Pasha, governor of Egypt, is deposed by France and Britain.

1879                          The Ottomans depose Egypt’s governor Ismail and replace him with his son Tawfiq while Ahmed Orabi/Arabi founds the Egyptian Nationalist party and leads a revolt against the Ottomans and European interference in Egypt

1880                         100 thousand Europeans live in Egypt, mainly in Cairo and Alexandria

1880                          The French, in violation of the Treaty of Berlin, occupy Tunisia and declare it a “protectorate”.

1880                          The pearl ­fishing kingdom of Bahrein becomes a British protectorate

1881                                Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League’s leaders and families were arrested and deported. .

1881                          Franceinvaded Tunisiaand theBeyacknowledged supremacy of Franceas a result of the treaty of Bardo.=.

1881                          Egyptian nationalists under Ahmed Torabi Pasha stage protests against foreign control.


1881                          France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.

1882                          Egypt came under British military occupation.

1890                          End of Banbara State.

1881                          Muhammad Ahmad proclaims himself the Mahdi and rebels against Egypt

1881                          The invasion and occupation of Tunisia by France.

1882                          Eastern-European Jewish immigrants begin to arrive in Palestine..

1882                          Egypt came under British military occupation.1882-1952

1882                          British troops invade Egypt to restore order, exile Orabi/Arabi and initiate political, military, economic and judicial reforms Sep

1882                          Egyptians riot in Alexandria to protest European interference in Egypt and Britain bombs Alexandria Jun

1882                          Egypt’s population is 7 million and Cairo’s population is 374 thousand

1882                          The British bombard Alexandria into submission, defeat the Egyptians at the Battle of Tel el Kabir and occupy Cairo.

1882                          The Mahdi seizes Khartoum and establishes a Caliphate in the Sudan.

1883                          Lord Granville’s circular to the powers on Britain’s desire to withdraw forces from Egypt as soon as the state of  the country permits. (January 3)

1883                          Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.

1883                          Britain appoints Evelyn Baring at consul general, so that the ruler of Egypt is theoretically a subject of the Ottomans but de facto a subject of the British Sep

1883                          Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.

1884                          British economic reforms lead to a boom of cotton in Egypt

1885                          — CONGRESS formed First meeting of the Indian National Congress

1885                          The Dutch Orientalist Snouck Hurgronje spends six months in Makkah and upon his return publishes a two-volume ethnography of Islam’s Holy City. Four years later he would be appointed as chief advisor to the Office of Native and Arab Affairs.

1885                           Russian forces seize territory in northern Afghanistan. The Russians will keep most of the area, but thereafter pledge to respect Afghanistan’s territorial integrity. Eight years later, another boundary agreement — this one between Afghanistan and British India — leaves several Afghan tribal areas in what is now Pakistan.

1885                          Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.

1885                          Muhammad Ahmaddeclared free Government of Sudanunderhis rule.

1885                          Sudan defeats British troops sent to regain Sudan for Egypt and Muhammad Ahmad establishes an Islamic theocratic state over Sudan

1885                          The British storm Khartoum. Death of al Mahdi of the Sudan.An Englishman, Allan Hume, founds the Indian National Congress.

1888                         Journalist Alexander Russell Webb (1846-1916) converts to Islam. He becomes a well-known speaker and advocate of Islam.

1888                          Ghulam Mirza Ahmed starts the Ahmadiya schism in Punjab, India. The movement draws strong opposition from the ulema.

1888                          Jamal al­Din’s exiled pupil Muhammad Abduh is allowed to return to Egypt and preach a nonviolent form of Egyptian nationalism

1888                          the Convention of Istanbul declares the Suez Canal neutral and guarantees passage during war or peace

1889                          Edward W. Blyden, noted scholar and social activist, traveled throughout the eastern and southern parts of the United States, proclaiming Islam. In a speech before the Colonization Society of Chicago, Blyden told his audience that the reasons Africans choose Islam over Christianity is that, “the Qur’an protected the Black man from self-depreciation in the presence of Arabs or Europeans.”

1889                          A noted scholar and social activist by the name of Edward W. Blyden travels throughout the Eastern and Southern parts of the United States lecturing about Islam and in one of his speeches before the Colonization Society of Chicago he told his audience that the reasons Africans choose Islam over Christianity is that, the Qur’an protected the black man from self-depreciation in the presence of Arabs or Europeans.

1889                          Shah Jahan Mosqueopened inWoking(England).

1889                          Egypt (still under British occupation) balances the budget

1889                          The British occupation of Sudan.

1889                          work begins on the Baghdad railway, meant to link Berlin to the Gulf via Istanbul

1890                          – End of the Toucouleur Empire.

1890                           – “Tobacco Riots”: ruler Naser al-Din Shah forced to withdraw trade concessions granted to Britain after mass protests

1890                          End of Banbara State..

1891                          Hajji Mirza Hassan al-Shirazi issued his fatwa prohibiting the Iranians from smoking the products of the Persian Tobacco Monopoly Company of Great Britain

1891                          Mirza Ghulam Ahmadof Qadianclaimed to be the promisedMessiah and Imam Mahdi, and thus laid the foundation of theAhmadiyya Movementin Islam.

1893                         Muslims migrate to the U.S. Many come from Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. etc. arrive in North America. They are mainly Turks, Kurds, Albanians, and Arabs. At the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago, Webb is the representative for Islam.

1893                          Cow protection Agitation for cow protection, Hindu-Muslim tensions

1893                          The American Islamic Propaganda Movement is founded by Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb. He is regarded as one of the earliest white American converts. In that same year on Sept. 20 and 21, M. A. Webb appeared at the First World Congress of Religions and delivered two lectures: “The Spirit of Islam,” and “The Influence of Islam on Social Conditions.”

1894                                  Mullah Powindah, an Afghan-backed Mehsud, led an attack on a British team demarcating the frontier between India and Afghanistan. Powindah took the title Badshah-Taliban (King of the Taliban) and became a 2-decade-long headache for the British.

1895                              Afghanistan’s northern border was fixed and guaranteed by Russia

1896                              Emir Abdul Rachman converted the eastern kafirs to Islam by force.

1895                                          AfghanistangotWakhan Corridorby an understanding withRussiaandBritish Indiamaking Afghan border touchChina. *

1897                          State of Bagirimioccupied by theFrench.

1895                          Muslims from India settle in the western U.S.

1896                                          February 14, Publication of Theodor Herzl’s treatise “The Jewish State”


1896                          France grants Algeria a parliament, but it is dominated by Europeans

1896                          Mustafa Kamil returns to Egypt from France and preaches Egyptian nationalism

1896                          Nasiruddin Shah of Persia is assassinated.Death of Jamaluddin Afghani, pan Islamic activist.

1897                                Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated League of Prizren, execute its leader and ban Albanian language books..

1897                          Death of Nawawi of Banten, a West Javanese scholar who was a long-time resident of Makkah and who composed numerous religious texts in Arabic still in use today.

1897                          August 29, Opening of the First Zionist Congress at Basel, Switzerland Its main objective is to create a Jewish state in Palestine.


1897                          State of Bagirimi occupied by the French,

1898                                          U.S. takes control of the Philippines; fighting in the south leads to the death of a considerable numbers of Filipino Muslims.

1898                          Death of Sayyid Aḥmad Khān

1899                          Qasim Amin publishes “The Liberation of Women” in Egypt

1899                          British protectorate: Britain assumes control of foreign and defence policy amid fears of an expanding Ottoman Empire.

1899                                          Fall of Muhammad Ahmad’s Mahdi Stateoccupied by theBritish and theEgyptiansjointly. By the end of this century, global Muslimpopulation had grown to 13 percent of the total.

1899                          Kuwait becomes a British protectorate 1900 Christians constitute 26% and Muslims constitute 12% of the world’s population