7th Century

614             the Persians defeated the Romans and captured Damascus and Jerusalem

630 Jan – Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) marched from Makkah Mukarramah on 6th Shawwal and arrived at the scene on 10th Shawwal 08AH (Jan 630 AD). The Muslim forces entered the valley in the morning after Fajr salat.
637 Saad bin Abi Vaqqas defeated Persians at the famous battle of Qadsiya in 16 A.H. and the whole Persia entered the folds of Islam
691 The Dome of the Rock was built by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik from 688 to 691 AD.
45                              Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet’s father.

570                              The Christian king of Yemen, Abraha leads an unsuccessful attack on Makkah. Muhammad (pbuh) ibn ‘Abdullāh is born in “the year of the Elephant” in Makkah into the tribe of Quraish.. He comes from a noble family and is well-known for his honesty and upright character. His father, ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, had died before his birth, and his mother, Amina bint Wahb, swiftly puts him into the care of wet-nurse named Halimah.

573                              Abu-Bakar Siddiq born 51 BH/573 CE, Makkah. d. 13 AH/23 August 634 (Tuesday) Medinah First Caliph (Khalifah) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Khalifatur-Rasool

575                              Halimah returned Muhammad (pbuh) to his mother Amina

577                              Muhammad (pbuh) visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother Aminah. Muhammad (pbuh) is taken in by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib.

577                              Uthman ibn Affaan 47 BH/577 born in Makkah d. 18 Zul-Hijja 35 AH/17 June 656 (Friday) Medinah Ameerul-Momineen, Third Caliph (Khalifah)

580                              Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of Prophet Muhamma (pbuh).

582                               Umar ibn al-Khattab 41 BH/582 Makkah born, Second Caliph (Khalifah), Title “Ameerul-Momineen” died 24 AH/7 November 644 (Sunday) Medinah

582                              Muhammad (pbuh) and Abu Talib journey to Syria and meet with Bahira, a Christian monk. Bahira notices certain peculiarities about the Prophet, which compels him to inquire further and have him find the “mark of prophets,” a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths.

586                              Muhammad (pbuh) participates in the war of Fijar (did not fight physically).

591                              Muhammad (pbuh) becomes an active member of “Hilful Fudul”, a league for the relief of the distressed.

594                               Muhammad (pbuh) becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.

595                              Muhammad (pbuh) Marriage to Khadijah – At the age of 25 Muhammad (pbuh) marries his wealthy twice-divorced distant cousin, Khadijah, who later becomes his first follower. She had already borne two sons and a daughter from her previous marriages

595                              Muhammad’s (pbuh) Second journey to Syra.

598                              Muhammad’s (pbuh) son, Qasim, is born.

600                              Muhammad’s (pbuh) daughter, Zainab, is born.

600                              Ali ibn Abi-Talib (1)13 Rajab 23BH/ 600 Makkah21 Ramadhan 40AH28 January 661 (Thur) he was born in the Kaaba, in the city of Makkah. The cousin of Muhammad (pbuh) and his son in law.

603                              Muhammad’s (pbuh) daughter, Um-e-Kalthum, is born.

604                              Muhammad’s daughter, Ruqayya, is born.

605                              The outer wall of the Kabaa took fire. Muhammad (pbuh) arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.

605                              24 July— Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad (pbuh). She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad’s descendants are through her.

610                              9 February According to Muslim belief, at the age of 40, Muhammad (pbuh) is visited by the angel Gabriel while on retreat in a cave near Makkah. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God’s prophet. Khadija is the first to accept Islam. Later, Muhammad (pbuh) is told to call his people to the worship of the one God, but they react with hostility and begin to persecute him and his followers. The year Muslims cite as the beginning of Muhammad’s mission and revelation of the Quran. – Ali, Abu Bakr, Zaid ibn Harithah embrace Islam

610                              Arab tribes defeated an Arab-Persian army at Dhu Qar in Iraq.

611                              Arabs invade Mesopotamia.

611                              Mo’awiah ibn Abi-Sufian born 12 BH/611 Makkah. d.  60 AH/680 Dimashq. 6th Khalifah (Brother-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

611                              -626  Sassanid armies capture Jerusalem and over run Asia Minor.

613                              War between Romans and Persian forces, Romans defeated in Basra. Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.

613                              Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins the public preaching of Islam. This causes confrontation with the tribe of the Quraish. For the first time, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins to preach Islam publicly in Makkah. His preaching is met with skepticism, and he is accused of plagiarizing the “tales of the ancients”. One of his most sternest of critics is his own uncle, Abu Lahab, who is cursed by name in the Qur’an. The Makkahns ask for miracles, but Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) gives them none.

614                              Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam. Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia

614                              Persians sack Jerusalem damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.

615                              Friction with the Quraysh of Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) attacks on the native pagan beliefs causes friction between his followers and the Quraysh. Muhammad (pbuh) allows Muslims to leave Arabia. First Muslim migration to Ethiopia; 80 Muslims migrate to Abyssinia to escape persecution from the Makkans. The king of Abyssinia, Negus, treats them well and later accepts Islam, himself.

615                              Conversion of Omar ibn al Khattab (r) and Hamza (r).


616                              Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Seclusion. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) and his converts feel persecution. Second Hijrah to Abysinnia


617                              Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.

619                              The Satanic verses incident Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) finally acknowledges Allat, Manat, and al-Uzza, the goddesses of the pagan Makkahns in a revelation. Upon hearing this, the Makkans are overjoyed. Later, following an alleged visit from the angel Jibreel, Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) recants and claims they were the words of Satan

619                             Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Marries Sau’da

619                              April/May— Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and KhadijaYear of Sorrow.

620                              Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) goes to Ta’if (a town near Makkah) to seek protection and followers; he does not succeed..

620                              miraclous Night Journey to heaven –  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) reports that he had been carried to Jerusalem and then to Paradise on a mythological flying steed named Buraq, and has met the other prophets. Over the sixth heaven, he meets Moses who weeps because there would be more Muslims in heaven than Jews. Five daily prayers awarded by God for Muslims.

620                              22 Members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes of Yathrib (Medina) converted to Islam and negotiated with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) with the aim of making him leader of their strife-ridden tribal com­munity. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) invited to lead Arabs in Medina.

621                              The first pledge Covenant of Aqabah with twelve men from the tribes of Khazraj and Aws of Yathrib (Medina). They convert to Islam.

621                              Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Makkah and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad’s clan, the Hashim.

622                               March- Second pledge at Aqaba. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib (now Madinat al-Nabi, “the city of the Prophet,” or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms.  About 75 converts from Medina took the Pledge professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad (pbuh) from all danger. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.

622                              Apr. – Muslims flight began to Medina, with in two months about 150 emigrants had reached Madinah. The Quaraishs resist the new religion. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his small band of followers migrate to the town of Yathrib in the north, which is open to his new faith. The Hijrah of 622, the migration, marks the beginning of the Muslim era. After making himself ruler, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) changes the name of the town to Medina (“city of the Prophet”), and Medina becomes the seat of the caliphate. This marks year one of the Islamic calendar and the establishment of the Islamic ummah, the community of believers.This tradition is based on the hadiths, Sunnah, and has no proof from the time he lived.

622                              July – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by the Makkans.

622                     12th September. The Quraish convened the Makkan parliament at Daral-Nadwa on Thursday the 26th Safar under Abu Jehal.

622                     September 16 – Migration to Madinah Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) and Abu Bakr started the journey towards Madinah

622                              Sept. 24, Hijra of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from Makkah to Medina; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and approximately 75 to 200 followers arrived in Madina, beginning of the Islamic era. Sept. 24, 622.

622                              Oct. – The building of a domed mosque in Quba’ then another in Medina; Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) consummates his marriage to Aisha, his nine-year-old bride.; Sawda’s emigration to Medina; Birth of ‘Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair; Hamzah’s victory;‘Ubaidah ibn al-arith’ victory; The military expedition to Bu’ath; Death of Abu Umamah; Death of Kulthum ibn Hadm; Al-Walud ibn al-Mughirah perishes; Al-’a ibn Wa’il perishes.

623                              The Patrol of Buwat took place in October 623 or 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar, in the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal. Muhammad went with a force of 200 men in order to raid parties of the Quraysh.  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  stayed at Buwat for some time and left without engaging in combat.

623                              January— Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.

623                              The Second Year (2 A.H.623 A.D.) Military expeditions to al-Abwa’ a village belonging to Rabigh, western coast of Saudi Arabia; al-’Ashira; Through Ali’s military exploit, Medina’s grazing area is regained; Mission of Sa’d ibn Abu Waqqa;‘Abdullah ibn Jash’s raid; Change of the qibla (direction of prayer toward Makkah instead of Jerusalem); Introduction of zakatul-fir (the special mandatory charity tax paid at the end of the fasting month of Ramaan);  Introduction of alatul-’ud; The battle with the Qainuqa’ tribe; Battle of al-Kadr; Battle of As-Suwaiq.

623                              Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  adopts the legitimized Bedouin practice of raiding and takes to ambushing caravans – Battle of Dul-‘Ashir. The Patrol of Dhu Al-Ushairah  occurred in the year 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar between the months of Jumādi al-Ūlā and Jumādi al-Ākhirah (November–December, 623 CE).This was the 6th caravan expedition and the 3rd ‘Ghazwah’ (in which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself was the commander) occurring about 2 months after the Invasion of Buwāṭ.

624                               Fasting introduce as a second pillar of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begin raids on caravans to fund the movement. Attacks are made upon Bani Salim, Sawiq, Ghatfan, and Bahran.

624                              The Nakhla raid – It took place in January 624 AD (Rajab 2 A.H.) Muhammad despatched ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh Asadi to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Makkah, at the head of eight Emigrants with six camels.[the 7th Caravan Raid against the pagan Makkans,

624                              March 15, Battle of Badr, first victory of Muslims over Makkans, which was seen to be a sign of the truth of Islam, Muhammad (pbuh) instituted the Fast of Ramadan (the month in which both the Battle and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s Call to Prophethood had taken place). Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s chief rival in Makkah, Abu Jahl, was executed.

624                              Apr.- Exile of the Jewish Bani Qaynuqa Breaking an earlier treaty, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims besiege the Jewish Qaynuqa tribe. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) initially intends to execute all the males, but following an emotional plea from Abdullah bin Ubayy, he confiscates their property and exiles them from Medina.

625                              The Battle of Uhud The second military encounter between the Makkans (led by Abu Sufyan) and the Muslims. Due to the Muslim focus on salvaging booty rather than victory, this time the pagan Makkans defeat the Muslims of Medina, and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) himself is hurt by an attack from Khalid ibn al-Walid. Battle of Uhud. In the battle 41 companions of prophet martyred including Amir Hamzah. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna

625                              Attacks made at Humra-ul-Asad and Dhatur-Riqa.

625                              The Muslim siege of the Jewish Banu Nadir tribe lasts for two weeks, after which they surrender. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) confiscates their weapons and exiles them from Medina.

625                              28 May – Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, son of Ali and Fatimah and 2nd Shia imams. 3 AH28 May 625 (Tue) Medinah Safar 49 or 50 AH669 or 670

625                              Persia attacks Constantinople, but unable to breach the walls.

625                              Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) begins dictation of the Koran.

626                              Husain ibn Ali (3)3 Sha’ban 4 AH8 Jan 626 (Wednesday) Medinah10 Muharram 61 AH9 Oct 680 (Tue) Karbala, Iraq Shaheed-e-Karbala, Second son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

626                               Attacks at Badru-Ukhra, and Banu Mustalaqq Nikah.

626                              Emperor Heraclius I of Byzantium expels drives out Persians from Egypt.

626                              Expedition to Dumat al-Jandal against tribes in the Syrian border area.

627                              Subjugation of the Bani Kalb at Dumat al-Jandal. Additional battles fought at Ahzab, Bani Lahyan, Ghaiba, and Khaibar.

627                              A confederation was created between Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s followers in Makkah and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.

627                              March- Makkan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 – c. 655) laid siege to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was unsuccessful for the 15 days. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Makkans and he expelled Banu Quraiza Jews and two great Bedouin tribes allied with Makkans

627                              Heraclius and his armies win the battle of Ninevah, defeating the Persians.

628                              Poisoned at Khaybar Immediately following the conquest of Khaybar, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his men are served a meal of poisoned lamb by a Jewish woman named Zaynab bint al-Harith, causing him to fall ill. Muhammad (pbuh) questions her, and then has her executed.

628                              The conquest of Khaybar Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims besiege the Khaybar oasis. The combatants killed, and the women and children allotted as booty. The Jewish leader, Kinana, is tortured and beheaded, and his young widow, Safiyah, is taken by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) for himself.

628                              The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sends messages to Khusro of Persia, Khusro Parviz, he torn the letter.   Heraclius of Byzantium, Muqawqis of Egypt and the king of Yemen, inviting them to accept Islam.

628                              Yemen converts to Islam

628                              Mar.     Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Makkah where their passage was blocked by citizens of Makkah. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.
628 Chosroe Parvez was assassinated and succeeded by his son Sheroe in 628
629 the first Muslim attack at Christian territory at the battle of Mauta in September 629 AD.29                     Sep. The Battle of Mu’tah in where Zayd was killed. Byzantine victory over Muslim army at Mutah. Heraclius recovers Jerusalem.

629                               The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performs the pilgrimage at Makkah.


630                                    Oct.-  The Expedition to Tabouk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, AH 8.

630                             On 6th Shawal, 8January 27, 630, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  marched to Hunain to crush the powers of the four savage tribes, viz. Thaqif, Hawazin, Sa’d and Jasam The Muslims prevail in the Battle of Hunayn against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and conquer Ta’if. In doing so, they capture huge spoils, consisting of 6,000 women and children and 24,000 camels. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is now the ruler of Arabia.

630                               11 January— Eighteen months after signing the agreed upon ceasefire, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  marshals his forces outside Makkah. During the Holy Truce months he surprise attacks and conquers Quarish forces. His violation of the peace treaty is celebrated as the first “hudna“. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) conquers Makkah, He enters the city peacefully, and eventually all its citizens accept Islam. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba

630                               Two years before Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)’s death of a fever, he launches the Tabuk Expedition, in which he led 30,000 jihadists against the Byzantine Christians. He had heard a report that a huge army had amassed to attack Arabia, but the report turned out to be a false rumor. The Byzantine army never materialized.

631                              All Arabians tribes including tribe of Thaqif submit to Islam.  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) sends (the now converted) Khalid ibin al-Walid and other warriors to the remaining non-Muslim Arabian tribes, inviting them to accept Islam.

631                              Year of Deputations.

631                              The Tabuk raid – The expedition to Tabuk marked the first real act of aggression by the Muslims against Christians. Two thirds of the Christian world would be conquered before the much belated and weak response of the crusades. By the time Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) arrives at Tabuk, the Byzantine troops have already withdrawn. However, the local Christian leaders are forced to pay Jizyah and submit to Islamic rule.

632                               6 March The Farewell pilgrimage The last verse of the Qur’an is revealed. After completion of the pilgrimage, Muhammad (pbuh) delivers his famous sermon which leads to the commencement of the conquests against the Christians and Zoroastrians.

632                              JUN 8.   Monday. Death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  Abu-Bakr, Mohammed’s father-in-law becomes caliph (deputy of the Prophet). With Umar, he devises a system whereby Islam enforces religious and political fealty. Military conquest of Middle East begins . Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.]

632                              The Shiites, or Partisans of Ali, claim that Ali should succeed Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) based on blood relation, but the council of the elderly (Sunnites) chooses instead Abu Bakr

632                              -33 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam; Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.

632                              Usamah leads expedition to Syria.

632                                   Dec. – Death of  Fatimat az Zahra (r), beloved daughter of the Prophet, wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib (r).

632                              -661 CE – Period of the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali

632-634                        Under the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, A.H. 11–13  A.D. 632–634 the Muslim army reconquer and sometimes conquer for the first time the polytheists of Arabia. These Arab polytheists had to convert to Islam or die. They did not have the choice of remaining in their faith and paying a tax.

633                              The Koran’s early textual versions recorded. .

633                              The Muslim army led by Khalid al-Walid, a superior military commander, whom Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)  nicknamed the Sword of Allah for his ferocity in battle, conquer the city of Ullays, Mesopotamia along the Euphrates River (in today’s Iraq).
633                               – Battle of Al-Anbar was between the Muslim Arab army under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid and the Sasanian Empire. The battle took place at Anbar which is located approximately 80 miles from the ancient city of Babylon. Additional attacks at Oman, Hadramaut, Kazima, Walaja, Ulleis, and

633                                          -42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires

633                                          Campaigns in BahrainOmanYemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq. Battle of ChainsBattle of SaniyyBattle of WalajaBattle of HiraBattle of Al-AnbarBattle of Ayn al-TamrBattle of Dawmat al-JandalBattle of Firaz.

633                              Abu Bakr (r) conducts campaigns against eastern Arabs to ensure their compliance with zakat. Rise of the false prophets. Battle of Yamama against Musailimah al Kazzab. Abu Bakr (r) authorizes the preparation of a written copy of the Qur’an, the Mashaf e Siddiqi.

633                              The Koran’s early textual versions recorded. Canonical versions will appear circa 651-52.

634                              Abu Bakr calls for a war against infidels.

634                               Additional attacks on Basra, Damascus, Ajnadin, Namaraq, and Saqatia. Around 4,000 Jewish, Christian, and Samaritan peasants are executed from Gaza to Cesarea. Muslim chronicler Baladhuri would later record in the ninth century that 40,000 Jews had successfully been destroyed in Cesarea by his day.

634                              At the Battle of Yarmuk in Syria the Muslim defeat the Byzantines.

634                              22 August— Death of Abu Bakr, the first caliph of Islam. Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-44 ) assumes power as the second caliph.(.H. 13–23  A.D. 634–644) The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands,

634                              Muslim armies defeat the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadyn. Abu Bakr (r) passes away. Omar ibn al Khattab (r) is elected the Caliph.

634-644                        The Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, who is regarded as particularly brutal.

635                              -650 Conquest of Syria, Palestine, the Persian Empire, Egypt and parts of North Africa, West Africa and Spain. A bloodbath followed in the wake of Islamic victories around the Mediterranean Sea. Countless large Christian and Jewish communities destroyed, and the land promised to God’s people in Old Testament days was wrenched from them.

635                              Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.

635                              Khalid ibn Walid, an Islamic general, defeats the Byzantines in Marj al-Suffar near Damascus.

635                              Muslims begin conquest of Syria and Persia. Syria will fall in 641 and Persia in 642.

635                              Campaigns against eastern Roman and Persian Empires. The Muslims capture Damascus.

635-650                        Conquest of Syria, Palestine, the Persian Empire, Egypt and parts of North Africa, West Africa and Spain. A bloodbath followed in the wake of Islamic victories around the Mediterranean Sea. Countless large Christian and Jewish communities destroyed, and the land promised to God’s people in Old Testament days was wrenched from them.

636                              August 20, 636  – . Battle of Yarmouk, also called the Battle of Yarmuk, (20 August 636). After the devastating blow to the Sassanid Persians at Firaz, the Muslim Arab forces, under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid, took on the army of the Christian Byzantine Empire at Yarmouk near the border of modern-day Syria and Jordan. The major battle was to continue for six days.

637                              The Arabs under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon (Madain).. Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty and start of Islamic rule. By 651, the entire Persian realm is under the rule of Islam as it continues its westward expansion.

638                              Muslims enter the area north of Arabia, known as “Sham,” including Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq.

638                              The Muslims defeat the Romans and enter Jerusalem.Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem. The Romans are defeated at the Battle of Yarmouk and the Muslims enter Palestine. Before entering Jerusalem, Caliph Umar forms a covenant with the Jews, pledging protection of their religious freedom. Freedom of worship is guaranteed to Christians. Judicial rulings of Omar ibn al Khattab (r) and Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) provide a basis for the sciences of Fiqh. Battle of Jalula.The Muslims continue their conquest of Syria, Lebanon and Iraq, which is completed in 641 CE.

638                              Council of Jabiya (Syria) ‘Umar confers with the Prophet’s companions on the division and organisation of the domains acquired in the conquests; thereafter the setting up of the Diwan (army lists) that become the basis of pensions around 640.

638                              -650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.

639 –                               Conquest of Khuizistan Syria, the Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium

639                               Thousands die from starvation in and around Constantinople due to ravaged and burned fields by Islamic raiders.

639                              -42 Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

639                              Plague of Emmaus.

640                              Battle of Babylon in Egypt. The armies of Amr Ibn al-‘As conquer Egypt and found the city of al-Fustat.

640                              -42 Conquest of Persia

640                              Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Conquest of Syria completed. These alliances formed between Muslims, Christians, and Jews were based on liberation, rather than subjugation, of conquered peoples. Egypt, Persia and the Fertile Crescent came under the rules of four “Righteous Caliphs” until 662.

641                              Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.

641                              Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

641                              Arab armies advance towards Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sindh.

641                              Conquest of Mosul (upper Mesopotamia) \

641                              The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors. Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.

642                              Battle of Rayy in Persia.

642                               Campaign to Barqa (Tripolitania, 642-43)

642                              Oldest extant manuscript in Arabic (with disambiguation dots)

642                              the Arabs destroy the library of Alexandria and found the first mosque in Africa, Amr Ebn El Aas Mosque (the site of future Cairo)

642                              Muslim rule of Mesopotamia and parts of Persia. The Battle of Nahāvand (also Nihāvand or Nahāwand) was fought in 642 between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies. The battle is known to Muslims as the “Victory of Victories.” The Sassanid King Yazdegerd III escaped to the Merv area, but was unable to raise another substantial army. It was a decisive victory for the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persians consequently lost the surrounding cities including Sephahan (renamed Isfahan).

642                              The conquest of Egypt is completed. Caliph Omar streamlines the administration of the vast empire.

643                              Campaigns to the coast of Makran and southeast Iran.

643                              Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia)

643                              First construction of the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.

643                              -707 Muslim conquer North Africa.

644                              Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.

644                              5 November— Assassiation of Umar, second caliph of Islam by a Persian prisoner of war; Uthman ibn Affan (23–35  A.D. 644–656) is elected third Caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

644                              Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad’s prophesies. Rallies arise to support Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

644                              -650 Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.

645                              Byzantine forces recapture Alexandria from the Arabs and local inhabitants rise up to support the Byzantine forces.

645                               Campaigns in Fats.

646                              Arabs recapture Alexandria

646                              Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.

647                              Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.

649                              Beginning of war at sea against Byzantium and the conquest of Cyprus. Muawiya I ibn Abu Sufyan, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.

650                              Pronunciation of Qur’anic verses standardized. The final text of the Quran is established.

650                              -732 Expansion into Eastern Turkey, India and China.

650                              First conflict between Arabs and Turks. Khazars defeated an Arab force led byAbd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar.

651                              Eastern Persia is conquered.

651                               Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.

651                              -52 Canonical versions of the Koran finalized

652                                Arabs introduce the region to Islam, a religion that will eventually become dominant.

652                                Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Caliph Uthman bin Affan

652                              Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).

652                              Death of Abu Dhar al Ghifari, venerated Companion and Sufi.

653                              Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

654                              Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.

655                               Islam begins to spread throughout North Africa.

655                              Naval Battle of the Masts – In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

656                              June – Martyrdom of Uthman bin Affan by dissenters from his army. ‘Ali ibn Abi-Talib A.H. 35–40  A.D. 656–661 Ali is finally appointed caliph, a role he reluctantly accepts – becoming the fourth so-called Rightly Guided Caliph. For Shias, however, he holds the title of Imam, or leader the first of 12 Imams believed by “Twelver” Shias to be the true successors of Muhammad.

656                              10 December— Battle of the Camel. Beginning of the Civil Wars. Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats dissidents under Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r) at the Battle of the Camel in which Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, leads a rebellion against Ali for not avenging Uthman’s assination. Ali’s partisans win.

657                               Ali moves the capital from Makkah to Kufa, situated in modern-day Iraq. Muawiya, an Umayyad brother-in-law of Muhammad’s, and a cousin of Othman’s, confronts Ali for rule of the caliphate but is defeated at the Battle of Siffin. Unable to overcome Ali in battle, he instead manoeuvres him into accepting arbitration at Daumaut ul Jandal, arbitration goes against Ali.

657                              13th of Safar 37 A.H. (~30 July 657 C.E.) During The Battle of Nahrawan was a battle between Ali ibn Abi Talib (the fourth Sunni Caliph and the 1st Shi’a Imam) and the Kharijites, near Nahrawan, twelve miles from Baghdad.

658                              17 July 658 Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) defeats the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan.

658                              ‘Adruh arbitrates between ‘Ali and Mu’awiya, and refuses to pronounce ‘Ali legitimate caliph.  Muawiya is declared the Caliph by his supporters in Damascus.

659                               Ali Zainul-Abideen (4)5 Sha’ban 38 AH5 Jan 659 (Saturday) Medinah25 Muharram 95 AH20 Oct 713 (Friday) Medinah Son of Imam Husain]

659                              Truce between Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) and Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan. Beginning of the Kharijite schism.

659                              Conquest of Egypt by Mu’awiyah.

660                              Muawiyah declares himself caliph in Damascus.

660                              Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Muawiyah. Muawiyah I declares himself as the caliph at Damascus.

661                              28 January- assassination of Ali ibn Abi-Taalib by an extremist;  born 599, 13 Rajab 23BH599 Makkah died 21 Ramadhan 40AH28 January 661 (Thur) Ali’s supporters acclaim his son Hasan as next Caliph, but he comes to an agreement with Muawiyyah I and retires to Medina.

661                              January29 — Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Caliph, is assassinated by Kharijites, buried in NajafIraq. bringing to an end the rule of the four “righteous caliphs” Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. This also marks the beginning of the Umayyad rule. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication. Mu’awiyah becomes the sole Caliph and rules until 680. Muawiya is the first member of the Omayyad Dynasty, which will last until 750. Imam Hassan ibn Ali retires from politics

661                              -680 the Caliphate of Muawiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan, a kinsman of the caliph Uthman, and the first great caliph of the dynasty. He founds Umayyid dynasty (A.H. 41–132  A.D. 661–750) and moves capital from Medina to Damascus Damascus becomes the new capital. Mu’awiya’s caliphate begins the second major period of expansion and creates an army of paid mercenaries

662                              Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile Crescent and Persia yielded to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, whose rule lasted until 1258 and 820, respectively.

662                                Khawarij revolts. The Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad. It broke into revolt against the authority of the Caliph Ali after he agreed to arbitration with his rival, Muawiyah I, to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657). A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years, the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate.

662                              -75 Ziyad ibn Abihi became governor of Iraq (Basra) and Sasanian provinces.

662                              Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile

664                              the Arabs conquer Afghanistan

665                              Muawiya orders the buildup of a navy.

666                              Abdu’l-Rahman ibn Abu BakrMuhammad ibn Maslamah and Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan dies.

667                              Muslim armies capture Khorasan.

667                              The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threatening Constantinope. Sicily is attacked by Muslims sailing from Tunisia.

668                              First Siege of Constantinople This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs Greek Fire. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah has to send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.

669                              The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be open to the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 800.

669                              Hasan ibn Ali, the second imam of the Shiites is poisoned and killed. Husayn ibn Ali becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib‘s followers.

670                              Beginning of operations against the Berbers and of the conquest of North Africa by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi’, he founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.

671                              Muslim armies under Mauwiya I capture the island of Rhodes.The first attempt to capture Constantinople fails.

672                               Beginning of the ‘seven year’ Arab siege of Constantinople.

672                              Campaigns in Khurasan.

673                              Arabs begin siege of Constantinople, which continues until 678.

674                               The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.

674                              Arab conquest reaches the Indus River.

674                              the Arabs attack Byzantium

674                              Arab conquest continues eastward until it reaches the river Indus in modern Pakistan.

676                              August 23, 676 Birth of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium, as the illegitimate son of Pippin II. Serving as Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles would lead a force of Christians that turn back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, would effectively halt the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

677                             Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

677                              9 may – Muhammad Baqir (the fifth imam of the Shiites )1 Rajab 57 AH/9 May 677 (Saturday) born in Medinah. Died in7 Zul-Hijja 114 /AH28 Jan 733 (Wednesday) Medinah Son of Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen

677                              Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz.

678                              Death of Aisha binte Abu Bakr (r), wife of Prophet Muhammed (p) and the source of a large number of Hadith.

679                              the Arabs are defeated from Byzantium


680                              60 A.H Uqbah bin Nafi, marches west and claims Africa for Islam.

680                              28 April Caliph Mu’awiyah dies. His son Yazid succeeds him as Caliph. A struggle with Ali’s other son, Hussein, results in the death and mutilation of the latter in a battle at Karbala (in the south of present-day Iraq). This martyrdom of Hussein becomes a pivotal event for the Shi’a sect of Islam, and is commemorated annually by Shi’a Muslims all over the world as a day of mourning called Ashura . For the Shi’a, Hussein’s rebellion was the action of a brave man defying injustice and tyranny. Civil war among the Muslims

680                              10 October— Battle of Karbala and Husayn bin Ali is killed along with his companions. Ali ibn Husayn becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib‘s followers. Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.


681                              Uqba Ibn Nafi leads an army into the Maghreb, and arriving at the Atlantic Ocean. The invasion is partially reversed by a Amazigh (Berber) chieftan Kahena.

682                              North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Kairouan and withdraw to Burqa.

683                              Yazid sacks Madina. Uqba bin Nafi conquers North Africa.

683                              The Harra Incident started on a Wednesday, Thul-Hijja 28, 63 A.H.August 31, 683 A.D. and was led by Abdullah ibn az-Zubair, a cousin of the Prophet of Islam and declares himself as the Caliph at Makkah.

683                              11 November— Death of  Yazid I  (680-83), Muawiya II ( A.H. 64  A.D. 683–684) becomes caliph.

684                              June— Muawiya II abdicated. Marwan I  (A.H. 64–65  A.D. 684–685)  becomes the  Caliph’ at Damascus.

684                                Battle of Marj Rahat.


685                              Death of Marwan I – Reign of Abd al-Malik. (A.H. 65–86  A.D. 685–705) the second great Umayyad caliph becomes caliph and introduces administrative reforms (Arabic language as the official language, the minting of new coins with Islamic verses, Construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Muslim armies advance into Central Asia. Christian farmers of the Negev and Samaria are driven out. Pillaged and abandoned, the farms go desolate.

685                              January – Battle of ‘Ayn al-Warda.  was fought in early January 685 between the Umayyad army and the Penitents (Tawwabun), a group of pro-Alid Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad al-Khuza’i, a companion of Muhammad, who wished to atone for their failure to assist Imam Husayn ibn Ali in his uprising against the Umayyads, in which he was killed at the Battle of Karbala in 680.

685                              -87 Religious and socially motivated uprising of the Shi’a under Mukhtar in Iraq in the name of the ‘Alid Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya.

686                              Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.

687                              Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.

688                              Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.

690                              Omayyad armies reach the Atlantic Ocean.

691                              Birth of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces would make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

691                              Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, the brother of the pretender ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr and his governor in Iraq, murdered. ‘Abd al-Malik conquers Iraq.

691                              Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.

691                              Abd al-Malik builds the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

691                              The Battle of Maskin also known as Battle of Dayr al-Jathaliq from a near by Nestorian monastery, was a decisive battle of the Second Islamic Civil War (680s-690s), fought near Baghdad on the western bank of the river Tigris between the army of the Umayyads under Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and the forces of Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, governor of Iraq for his brother, the Makkan anti-Caliph Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr. Kufa falls to Abd al-Malik.

692                              October— Capture of Makkah by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. End of the anti-caliphate of ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr (shiite). Death of ibn Zubayr. Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph.

692                              Abdul Malik mints the first coins of the Islamic state.

692                              The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.

692                              October— Capture of Makkah by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. End of the anti-caliphate of ‘Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr.

693                              Al Hajjaj, becomes governor of Iraq.

694                              Construction of the Omayyad Mosque in Damascus.

695                              Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The’ Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.

695                              the Arabs build the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (with the first inscription from the Koran)

696                              Arabic becomes the official language of the Islamic world

697                              the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in favor of the Arabic script

698                               78 A.H Byzantines flee from Carthage and Muslims get full power on the Berber Country

698                              CE, 78 A.H Byzantines flee from Carthage and Muslims get full power on the Berber Country.

698                              Muslims capture Carthage in North Africa.

699                              Abu-Hanifa 80 AH/699 Kufah, Iraq d. 150 AH/767 Baghdad, Iraq, Taabai, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Baqir & Imam Ja’far Sadiq

699                              Death of Al Juhani, rationalist, philosopher